An authoritative guide to understanding contemporary China
权威解读当代中国
中国外文出版发行事业局(CIPG) 
当代中国与世界研究院(ACCWS) 
中国翻译研究院(CATL) 

(上册)
抗击新冠肺炎疫情篇
The Fight Against COVID-19
Part 1
新冠肺炎疫情发生以来,不仅中国人民的生命安全和身体健康面临重大威胁,全球公共卫生安全也面临重大挑战。面对严峻考验,习近平主席高度重视、亲自指挥、亲自部署,中国人民团结奋战、同舟共济,用中国力量、中国精神、中国效率赢得了世界的普遍认同与赞赏,为全球公共卫生事业作出了重要贡献,生动践行了构建人类命运共同体的价值理念。 
为了帮助国际社会全面、客观、生动地了解中国人民抗疫斗争历程,为全球公共卫生治理提供参考借鉴,当代中国与世界研究院联合中国报道社策划推出《中国关键词:抗击新冠肺炎疫情篇》多语种电子刊特辑,从中央决策、政策部署、专有词汇、国际援助、具体举措、人物案例和防控知识等七个方面,解读中国打赢疫情防控阻击战、携手应对全球挑战的担当与行动。 
本专题电子刊分上下两册,共选取80个关键词进行阐释和解读,译为英、法、西、日、韩五个语种对外发布。
前言
The COVID-19 epidemic poses a critical threat to public life, safety and health, not only in China but throughout the world. Facing this severe test, Chinese President Xi Jinping has placed great importance on epidemic prevention and control and personally led the Chinese people in the battle against the coronavirus with solidarity and courage. China has won universal recognition and appreciation throughout the world for the strength, spirit, and efficiency of its response. It has made an important contribution to global public health security and provided a clear example of the concept of building a global community of shared future. 
To help the international community better understand how the Chinese people have fought against the epidemic, and provide references for global public health governance, the Academy of Contemporary China and World Studies and China Report Magazine have compiled this multilingual electronic document entitled Keywords to Understand China: The Fight Against COVID-19. It comprises seven sections: decisions by the central leadership, anti-epidemic guidelines and arrangements, special terminology, international aid, effective measures, brave fighters, and must-know facts. Its goal is to explain in comprehensive, objective, and vivid terms how China is fighting the war of epidemic prevention and control and working together with other counties to deal with this global challenge. 
Divided into two parts, this document contains a total of 80 terms and expressions and is available in English, French, Japanese, Korean and Spanish.
Introduction
把疫情防控工作作为当前最重要的工作来抓    13



坚定信心、同舟共济、科学防治、精准施策    15
 


疫情防控要坚持全国一盘棋    17



确保受赠财物全部及时用于疫情防控    19



做好疫情防控工作,直接关系人民生命安全和身体健康,直接关系经济社会大局稳定,也事关我国对外开放    21


目录 Contents
Decisions by the Central Leadership
 
中央决策
Epidemic Prevention and Control: 
Top of the Current Agenda    14

 
United to Take Science-Based and Targeted Measures and Fight the Epidemic with Confidence    16
 

Coordinated National Response 
in Epidemic Prevention and Control    18


All Donations to Be Used 
for Epidemic Control Without Delay    20



Epidemic Control: Directly Affecting People's Lives and Health, Overall Economic and Social Stability, and China's Opening Up    22


同时间赛跑,与病魔较量    23


武汉胜则湖北胜,湖北胜则全国胜    25






成立中央应对疫情工作领导小组    28



向湖北等疫情严重地区派出指导组    30


分区分级做好疫情防控工作    32

 

及时准确、公开透明发布疫情信息    34


Racing Against the Clock to Fight the Disease    24


If Wuhan Wins, Hubei Wins. If Hubei Wins, 
the Whole Country Wins.    26





The Central Leading Group for COVID-19 Prevention and Control    29

 
The Central Guiding Team Dispatched to Hubei Province    31


Region-Specific and Multi-Level Approaches to Epidemic Prevention and Control    33


Prompt Release of Accurate Epidemic Information    35

Anti-Epidemic Guidelines and Arrangements
政策部署
集中患者、集中专家、集中资源、集中救治    36




着力做好重点地区疫情防控工作     38


全力以赴救治患者,保障医疗防护物资供应    40


优先满足一线医护人员和救治病人需要     42



加大科研攻关力度     44


切实维护正常经济社会秩序    46


防控力量向社区下沉    48



Treating the Infected in Dedicated Facilities by Senior Medical Professionals from All Over the Country with All Necessary Resources     37


Key Regions: Focus of Epidemic Control     39


Ensuring Medical Supplies and Treating Patients at All Cost   41


Ensuring Priority Access of Frontline Medical Workers and Patients     43

 
Reinforcing Scientific R&D Against COVID-19    45


Maintaining Normal Economic and Social Order    47


Empowering Communities to Prevent and Control the Spread 
of the Coronavirus     49

Coordinating Epidemic Prevention and Control and Restoration of Economic and Social Order    51




Pneumonia of Unknown Cause    54
 

Novel Coronavirus    56
 

COVID-19    58


Human-to-Human Transmission    60
 

Public Health Emergency of International Concern    62


Field Visits of WHO Experts to Wuhan     64
统筹疫情防控与经济社会秩序恢复    50





不明原因肺炎    53

 
新型冠状病毒     55

 
新型冠状病毒肺炎    57


人传人    59

 
国际关注的突发公共卫生事件    61


世界卫生组织专家组赴武汉考察    63
Special Terminology
专有词汇  
病毒检测实验    65


启动Ⅰ级响应    67


新冠病毒成功分离    69


病死率    71

 
“三个首次”  73
 

中国—世界卫生组织新型冠状病毒肺炎联合考察报告》  75




国际社会积极合作与援助    78





Viral Infection Test    66


First-Level Public Health Emergency Response Activated    68


Successful Isolation of a Novel Coronavirus    70


Case Fatality Rate    72
 

Three “Firsts”  74

 
Report of the WHO-China Joint Mission on COVID-19     76




Cooperation with and Aid from 
the International Community    79
International Aid
国际援助
世界卫生组织大力支持和帮助    80


普京:第一时间表示愿意援助中国    82
  

盖茨夫妇:用慈善拯救世界    84
 

日本:山川异域,风月同天    86


韩国:向12城市捐赠物资    88


伊朗:第一个就疫情爆发向中国给予慰问的国家    90



巴基斯坦:巴铁信任值千金    92
 

蒙古:3万只羊送前线    94

Strong WHO Support and Assistance    81


Vladimir Putin: The Will to Provide Immediate Help     83


Bill and Melinda Gates: Saving the World with Charity     85


Japan: Miles Apart, but Close at Heart.     87


The ROK: Donating Goods to 12 Chinese Cities     89


Iran: The First Country to Offer Sympathy to China on the Outbreak of the Epidemic     91

 
The Trust of “Iron Pak” Is Worth More Than Gold    93


Mongolia: 30,000 Sheep to China    95
Decisions by 
the Central Leadership
中央决策
把疫情防控工作
作为当前最重要的工作来抓
       新冠肺炎疫情是新中国成立以来在国内发生的传播速度最快、感染范围最广、防控难度最大的一次重大突发公共卫生事件。 
       在2020年1月25日召开的中共中央政治局常委会专题会议上,习近平听取新冠肺炎疫情防控工作汇报并强调,“把疫情防控工作作为当前最重要的工作来抓”。这是在当前疫情防控非常时期的明确定位,为坚决打赢这场没有硝烟的战役标定了清晰坐标。 
       把疫情防控工作作为当前最重要的工作来抓,是因为人命关天,人民至上,必须把人民群众生命安全和身体健康放在第一位,做到抢救生命不惜财物、守护健康不畏繁难、防控疫情不避艰辛;是因为当前疫情传播呈扩散态势,必须坚持“宁可十防九空,不可失防万一”,只有把问题想得严重一些,把风险想得大一些,把措施定得更周密一些,才能跑赢疫情传播速度,赢得打赢疫情防控阻击战的主动权,有力有效遏制疫情蔓延势头。 
         疫情发生以来,习近平时刻关注着疫情防控工作,不断作出重要指示批示。中共中央印发《关于加强党的领导、为打赢疫情防控阻击战提供坚强政治保证的通知》。中央应对疫情工作领导小组及时研究部署工作,前方指导组也积极开展工作。国务院应对新冠肺炎疫情联防联控机制加强统筹协调,及时协调解决防控工作中遇到的紧迫问题。各级党委和政府积极作为,同时间赛跑,与病魔较量,形成了抗击疫情的强大合力。
Epidemic Prevention and Control: 
Top of the Current Agenda
The novel coronavirus epidemic was a major public health emergency. It spread faster and wider in China, and was the most difficult to prevent and control, than any other since the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949.
At a meeting of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee held on January 25, 2020, Xi Jinping emphasized that epidemic prevention and control must be put at the top of the current agenda. He highlighted the importance of the task during this emergency period and set clear coordinates for winning the battle. 
Putting epidemic prevention and control at the top of current agenda – this was because people’s lives are of supreme importance, to be achieved whatever the cost, and people’s health and safety are the top priority, to be safeguarded whatever the difficulty. China intended to control the epidemic and prevent its spread without shying away from any hardship. Should the epidemic have spread, China would do everything possible to combat it. Only by taking the problem seriously and implementing thoughtful measures could the country achieve this.
From the outbreak of the epidemic, Xi Jinping paid close attention to virus prevention and control and issued important instructions. The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) released a circular on strengthening Party leadership and providing strong political support for the battle. The Central Leading Group for COVID-19 Prevention and Control conducted a timely analysis and made arrangements for any relevant work, and the Central Guiding Team that was dispatched to Hubei province actively carried out their work. The Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council was instituted for overall planning and inter-agency coordination; it quickly solved many pressing issues in epidemic prevention and control. In the meantime, Party committees and governments at all levels took active steps to stall the epidemic. A strong joint force to battle the epidemic was formed.
坚定信心、同舟共济、
科学防治、精准施策
在2020年1月25日召开的中共中央政治局常委会专题会议上,习近平指出,要坚定信心、同舟共济、科学防治、精准施策,打赢疫情防控阻击战。这是中共中央审时度势、综合研判,对新冠肺炎疫情防控工作提出的总要求。 
坚定信心,就是面对新冠肺炎疫情加快蔓延的严重形势,相信我们有底气、有能力打赢这场疫情防控阻击战。同舟共济,就是加强党中央集中统一领导,各级党委和政府深刻认识做好新冠肺炎疫情防控工作的重要性和紧迫性,坚定不移地把党中央各项决策部署落到实处。科学防治,就是相信科学、依靠科学,联合国内外各方面专家开展科研攻关,强化科研与临床合作,尽快研制出快速简易的确诊方式,抓紧研发疫苗和有效药物,做到准确识变、科学应变、主动求变,把牢疫情防控的要害处、关键点。精准施策,就是针对不同区域情况,完善差异化防控策略,在坚决打好湖北保卫战、武汉保卫战的同时,全力做好北京疫情防控工作,落实非疫情防控重点地区分区分级精准防控策略。
At the meeting of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee on January 25, 2020, Xi Jinping called on the whole nation to be united, take science-based and targeted measures against the epidemic, and have confidence in conquering the virus. This was a general requirement by the CPC Central Committee for COVID-19 prevention and control based on a thorough analysis of the situation.
Having confidence implied that the Chinese nation had the strength and ability to contain the spread of the virus and win the battle in the end. Working in great unity, the whole country followed the centralized and unified leadership of the CPC Central Committee, and Party committees and governments at all levels fully understood the importance and urgency of epidemic prevention and control, and implemented the decisions and arrangements made by the CPC Central Committee in real earnest. Defeating the epidemic required a strong scientific base. In its science-based response to the outbreak, China engaged both Chinese and foreign experts in relevant fields to carry out scientific research on COVID-19 prevention and control, enhance cooperation between scientific research and clinical trials, and race against time to explore rapid and simple ways to diagnose the virus and develop effective vaccines and drugs. Taking targeted measures meant adopting a range of prevention and control policies appropriate to different regional conditions. While endeavoring to protect Hubei province and its capital city Wuhan, an all-out effort was also made to fight the epidemic in Beijing. Areas that were not key locations for virus prevention and control were instructed to adopt region-specific targeted approaches based on an assessment of local risk.
United to Take Science-Based and Targeted Measures and Fight the Epidemic with Confidence
疫情防控要坚持全国一盘棋
在2020年2月3日召开的中共中央政治局常委会会议上,习近平指出,疫情防控要坚持全国一盘棋。 
坚持全国一盘棋,首先要加强党中央集中统一领导。各级党委和政府必须坚决服从党中央统一指挥、统一协调、统一调度,做到令行禁止。各地区各部门必须增强大局意识和全局观念,坚决服从中央应对疫情工作领导小组及国务院联防联控机制的指挥,采取举措既考虑本地区本领域防控需要,也考虑对重点地区、对全国防控的影响。
疫情发生以来,在以习近平同志为核心的党中央统一领导、统一指挥下,各地区各部门各司其职、协调联动,紧急行动、全力奋战。全国各地调派医务人员,迅速集结、驰援武汉;建设者日夜奋战,迅速建成武汉火神山医院;军队高效投送疫情防控物资,抽调医护人员参加医疗救治;企业加班加点,最大限度生产疫情防控物资供全国统一调度。正如世界卫生组织总干事谭德塞所说,“中方行动速度之快、规模之大,世所罕见”。这充分证明,坚持全国一盘棋,调动各方面积极性,集中力量办大事,是中国打赢疫情防控阻击战的有力保证,彰显了中国国家制度和国家治理体系的显著优势。
Coordinated National Response in Epidemic Prevention and Control
At a meeting of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee held on February 3, 2020, Xi Jinping instructed that there should be a coordinated national response in epidemic prevention and control.
To ensure a coordinated national response, the centralized and unified leadership of the CPC Central Committee had to be strengthened. Party committees and governments at all levels were to work resolutely in accordance with the unified command, coordination and arrangements of the CPC Central Committee, and ensure strict enforcement of orders. All localities and government departments were to think in broad terms with a holistic perspective, and resolutely obey the command of the Central Leading Group for COVID-19 Prevention and Control and the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council. When devising epidemic control measures, they would take into account both the needs of their areas and sectors and the potential impact on key regions and the whole nation. 
From the outbreak of the epidemic, under the unified leadership and command of the CPC Central Committee with Xi Jinping at its core, various localities and government departments performed their duties, coordinated their efforts, took joint actions, and acted promptly with all their strength. A large number of medical workers from all over the country assembled and rushed to the aid of Wuhan. By working non-stop shifts, thousands of builders raced against the clock and completed the Huoshenshan Hospital in 10 days. The PLA efficiently delivered anti-epidemic materials and dispatched medical personnel to join the relief effort. The manufacturers operated at full capacity to maximize the production of materials for national unified distribution. 
 As World Health Organization (WHO) Director-General Tedros Adhanom said, “The speed with which China detected the outbreak, isolated the virus, sequenced the genome, and shared it with WHO and the world are very impressive, and beyond words.” All of these demonstrated that China can ensure a coordinated national response, arouse the enthusiasm of all parties, and concentrate resources on major initiatives. This provided the means for the country to win the war against the novel coronavirus; it also demonstrated the great strengths of China’s state institutions and governance system.
确保受赠财物全部及时用于疫情防控
 疫情发生以来,湖北和武汉等地陆续收到来自国内外的大量捐赠。为了确保这些捐赠财物及时发挥应有作用,2020年2月5日,习近平在主持召开中央全面依法治国委员会第三次会议时指出,受赠财物必须全部及时用于疫情防控。这一要求,是党中央从立法、执法、司法、守法各环节发力,全面提高依法防控、依法治理能力,为疫情防控工作提供有力法治保障的具体体现。
相关法律规定是贯彻落实这一原则的遵循和依据。比如,按照法律规定,受赠人应当将接受捐赠财物的情况以及受赠财物的使用、管理情况,采取不同方式真实、完整、及时公开信息;对于接受的救助灾害的捐赠财产,应当及时用于救助活动;慈善组织应当积极开展慈善活动,充分、高效运用慈善财产。此外,法律还规定,受赠方要接受政府和社会的监督,在公益慈善活动中违反法律规定的,应当依法承担法律责任。
All Donations to Be Used 
for Epidemic Control Without Delay
Following the outbreak of the epidemic, Wuhan and other places in Hubei received a large number of donations from around the world. At a meeting of the Commission for Comprehensive Law-based Governance of the CPC Central Committee on February 5, Xi Jinping pointed out that the donated goods must all be used without delay in epidemic control, to fulfill the wishes of the generous donors. This reflects the CPC Central Committee’s effort to enhance legislation, law enforcement, justice, and observation of the law to provide a strong legal guarantee for epidemic prevention and control. According to the Chinese law, a recipient must promptly make public accurate information about all donations received and the use and management of the donations, and distribute any materials for disaster relief without delay; charities must use their donations to fund charity activities, fully and efficiently. The law also stipulates that the recipient will be subject to government and public scrutiny, and those who violate the law concerning charity activities will be held accountable.
做好疫情防控工作,直接关系人民生命安全和身体健康,直接关系经济社会大局稳定,也事关我国对外开放
2020年2月3日,习近平总书记主持召开专题会议并强调,做好疫情防控工作,直接关系人民生命安全和身体健康,直接关系经济社会大局稳定,也事关我国对外开放。
 疫情防控工作直接关系人民生命财产安全和身体健康。这就要求各级政府全力以赴救治患者,保障医疗防护物资供应,努力提高收治率和治愈率、降低感染率和病死率,这也是防控工作的突出任务。必须统筹做好人员调配,尽量把精兵强将集中起来,把重症病人集中起来,统一进行救治,及时推广各医院救治重症病人的有效做法。
 疫情防控工作直接关系经济社会大局稳定。这就要求各级党委和政府继续为实现今年经济社会发展目标任务而努力,切实维护正常的经济社会秩序。必须在加强疫情防控的同时,通过落实“菜篮子”市长负责制,积极组织蔬菜等副食品生产,加强物资调配和市场供应等措施,努力保持生产生活平稳有序,确保蔬菜、肉蛋奶、粮食等居民生活必需品供应。
 疫情防控工作事关我国对外开放。这就要求中国优先保障在全球供应链中有重要影响的龙头企业和关键环节恢复生产供应,维护全球供应链稳定。只有站在全球供应链核心节点上的中国行业企业及时运转、中国机器有序开动,全球供应链才能保持稳定。
Epidemic Control: Directly Affecting People's Lives and Health, Overall Economic and Social Stability, 
and China's Opening Up
At the meeting on February 3, Xi Jinping pointed out that epidemic prevention and control directly affects people’s lives and health, overall economic and social stability, and China’s opening up to the outside world.
As it directly affected people’s lives, property and health, governments at all levels should spare no pains to save patients, and ensure the supply of medical protective equipment, raise the hospital admission rate and the recovery rate, and lower the infection rate and the case fatality rate. All these are very important to epidemic prevention and control. It is necessary to coordinate personnel deployment, concentrate the best medical workers, gather together all severe cases for treatment, and rapidly generalize the effective practices of individual hospitals in curing severe patients.
As it directly affected overall economic and social stability, Party committees and governments at all levels should make efforts to achieve the goals and tasks of the year’s economic and social development, and earnestly maintain normal economic and social order. While combating the epidemic, city mayors were to ensure the “vegetable basket” (non-grain food supply) and actively organize the production of vegetables and other non-staple foods, efficiently allocate materials and market supply, strive to maintain stability and order in work and daily life, and guarantee the supply of vegetables, meat, eggs, milk, grain and other daily necessities.
As it directly affected China’s opening up to the outside world, the country should maintain the stability of global supply chains by ensuring the resumption of production and supply by leading enterprises and key links. Only if China was able to proceed in an orderly manner and Chinese enterprises keep operating smoothly, could the global supply chain remain stable.
同时间赛跑,与病魔较量
       2020年2月3日,习近平主持召开专题会议并强调,同时间赛跑、与病魔较量,坚决遏制疫情蔓延势头,坚决打赢疫情防控阻击战。这一要求,彰显了人民利益高于一切的执政理念,传递出分秒必争战胜病魔的坚定信心。
        时间就是生命,抗击疫情,就是一场与时间的赛跑。在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,党员干部冲锋在前,医护人员日夜奔忙,火神山医院、雷神山医院建设者忘我鏖战,亿万中国人民行动起来,汇聚起一股强大的战斗力量。在防控疫情这场没有硝烟的战争中,每一次微小的胜利,都是争分夺秒奋勇拼搏的结果。
        疫情是魔鬼,战胜疫情,就是赢得与魔鬼的较量。要拿出强劲的勇气和实力,不能让魔鬼藏匿。要用科研攻关与它较量,在新冠病毒疫苗的研发方面不断取得新进展;用团结奋战与它较量,打响疫情防控的人民战争;用过硬作风与它较量,各级领导干部深入防控一线,雷厉风行解决突出问题,及时为群众排忧解难,有力推动各项防控工作贯彻落实。
Racing Against the Clock to Fight the Disease
While presiding over the meeting on February 3, Xi Jinping called on the country to race against the clock in the fight against the disease. He demanded an all-out resolute effort to curb the spread of the epidemic and win the battle against the virus. This reflects the ruling principle of the CPC that the interests of the people take precedence.
Time is crucial for saving lives, and it was vital to race against time to fight the epidemic. Under the strong leadership of the CPC, Party members and officials hurried to the front lines, medical personnel worked non-stop shifts, constructors toiled day and night to build the Huoshenshan and Leishenshan hospitals, and hundreds of millions of Chinese people acted together and formed a powerful fighting force. There was no smoke of gunpowder in this war against the epidemic, but every small victory was the result of a courageous fight against the clock.
Facing this demon, we had to be brave, use our full strength, and leave it no hiding place. We had to tackle key problems through scientific research, and try to develop effective vaccines as quickly as possible. Leading officials were required to take their places on the front line, solve prominent problems, and alleviate suffering.
武汉胜则湖北胜,湖北胜则全国胜
 湖北和武汉是疫情防控的重中之重,是打赢疫情防控阻击战的决胜之地。2020年2月10日,习近平在视频连线武汉市重症患者收治医院时指出,武汉胜则湖北胜,湖北胜则全国胜。 
 疫情发生以来,以习近平同志为核心的党中央始终牵挂湖北和武汉的抗疫工作。习近平两次主持召开中央政治局常委会会议,对疫情防控工作进行专题研究,强调湖北省要把疫情防控工作作为当前的头等大事,并对湖北和武汉做好疫情防控工作作出部署安排。党中央派中央指导组到武汉,全面加强疫情防控第一线工作的指导,同湖北人民和武汉人民并肩作战。全国共有40000多名医务人员驰援湖北,其中驰援武汉的就有35000多名。实践证明,稳住了湖北和武汉的疫情,也就稳住了全国大局。
If Wuhan Wins, Hubei Wins. If Hubei Wins, 
the Whole Country Wins.
Wuhan and Hubei were the top priorities in China’s epidemic prevention and control, and the main battlefield of the war against the virus. On February 10, in a video call with a hospital in Wuhan which was treating severe cases, Xi Jinping pointed out, “If Wuhan wins, Hubei wins. If Hubei wins, the whole country wins.”
From the outbreak of the epidemic, the CPC Central Committee kept a close eye on the anti-epidemic work in Hubei and Wuhan. Xi chaired more than one meeting of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee to study and discuss epidemic prevention and control. He emphasized that Hubei must put epidemic prevention and control at the top of the agenda. He also deployed resources for Hubei and Wuhan in their battle against the virus. 
The CPC Central Committee sent a Central Guiding Team to Wuhan to comprehensively strengthen guidance on the front line, and to fight side by side with the people of Wuhan and other parts of Hubei province. More than 40,000 medical workers from all over the country came to assist Hubei, about 35,000 of whom worked in Wuhan. It was clear that if the epidemic in Wuhan and Hubei could be brought under control, the situation throughout the country would stabilize.
Anti-Epidemic Guidelines and Arrangements
政策部署
成立中央应对疫情工作领导小组
 2020年1月25日,中共中央政治局常委会召开专题会议,决定成立中央应对新型冠状病毒肺炎疫情工作领导小组(简称“中央应对疫情工作领导小组”)。
 中央应对疫情工作领导小组是中共中央根据全国防控新冠肺炎疫情的紧迫需要成立的决策指挥机构,在中共中央政治局常委会领导下开展工作,旨在加强对全国疫情防控的统一领导、统一指挥。中共中央政治局常委、国务院总理李克强任领导小组组长,中共中央政治局常委王沪宁任副组长。  
1月26日,李克强主持召开中央应对疫情工作领导小组首次会议。会议指出,当前正处于疫情防控关键期,各级党委政府要把思想和行动统一到习近平总书记重要讲话和中共中央政治局常委会会议精神上来,把疫情防控作为当前最重要的工作来抓,采取更果断、更有力有序、更科学周密的举措,有效遏制疫情蔓延。会议强调,要进一步加强湖北省和武汉市疫情防控,中央向湖北派出指导组,推动加强防控一线工作,同时调配全国资源,优先保障湖北省和武汉市急需的医护力量和医疗物资,确保生活必需品供应。
 2月22日,中央应对疫情工作领导小组印发《关于全面落实进一步保护关心爱护医务人员若干措施的通知》,就进一步保护关心爱护医务人员提出十方面举措。截至2月24日,中央应对疫情工作领导小组先后召开11次会议研究部署疫情防控工作。
The Central Leading Group 
for COVID-19 Prevention and Control
At its meeting on January 25, 2020, the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee decided to form a Leading Group for COVID-19 Prevention and Control under the CPC Central Committee (Central Leading Group).
The Central Leading Group worked under the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, and exercised unified leadership and command over epidemic prevention and control. Li Keqiang, member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and premier of the State Council, headed the group, and Wang Huning, member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, served as deputy head.
On January 26, Li Keqiang presided over the first meeting of the Central Leading Group. The meeting concluded that as epidemic prevention and control had reached a critical stage, Party committees and governments at all levels must unify their thinking and actions by following the guiding principles of General Secretary Xi Jinping and the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau. They must put epidemic prevention and control at the top of their current agenda, and take decisive, powerful, orderly, scientific and thorough measures to effectively curb the spread of the virus. 
To further tighten epidemic prevention and control in Hubei and Wuhan, the meeting decided to dispatch a Central Guiding Team to promote frontline work. As the whole country battled the virus, it also decided to allocate resources nationwide to first meet the urgent need for medical workers and medical supplies in Hubei and Wuhan and to ensure the supply of daily necessities for the citizens there.
On February 22, the Central Leading Group issued a document on protection and care for medical workers, proposing 10 detailed measures. By February 24, the group had held 11 meetings to study and epidemic prevention and control work and deploy resources.
向湖北等疫情严重地区派出指导组
 武汉和湖北是新冠肺炎疫情防控的重中之重,也是打赢疫情防控阻击战的主战场。2020年1月25日,中共中央政治局常委会召开专题会议,决定向湖北等疫情严重地区派出指导组,推动有关地方全面加强防控一线工作。
 中央赴湖北指导组主要有三项职责:一是指导督导湖北、武汉落实中央决策部署;二是指导湖北、武汉抗击疫情,增强防控力量;三是督查一些不作为、乱作为、不担当的问题,依法依纪要求有关方面做出整改,做出调查处理。
 1月27日,中共中央政治局委员、国务院副总理孙春兰率中央指导组抵达湖北省武汉市,全面加强一线疫情防控,重点开展五方面工作:一是加强源头防控,作出交通隔离、延长假期等工作部署,切断疫情的传播途径和传播渠道;二是千方百计调配资源,保障医护力量和医用物资,增加收治床位供给,确保居民生活必需品供应;三是全力救治患者,部署建立方舱医院、开展拉网式排查,分类分级分层开展救治,抓好确诊、疑似、发热和密切接触者四类人群管理,推进中医药参与疫情防控;四是组织开展流行病学调查,对传染源、传播途径和传播机理等进行追踪研究,及时研判疫情走势;五是明确和落实好辖区、行业部门、单位和个人“四方”责任。
  中央指导组同湖北人民和武汉人民并肩作战,自始至终抓住疫情防控、救治患者、保障医用物资三条主线,扭住武汉和湖北其他市州两个重点,在疫情防控斗争的第一线发挥了关键作用。
The Central Guiding Team Dispatched 
to Hubei Province
Wuhan city and Hubei province were the top priorities for epidemic prevention and control, and the main battlefields of the war against the virus. On January 25, 2020, the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee decided to dispatch a Central Guiding Team to Hubei province to comprehensively strengthen the front line of epidemic prevention and control .
The Central Guiding Team had three major duties: (1) to guide and supervise Hubei province and Wuhan city in implementing the arrangements made by the central leadership; (2) to guide Hubei and Wuhan in the battle against the epidemic and increase the forces of prevention and control; and (3) to investigate negative, misguided and irresponsible actions, supervise local redress, and deal with those problems in accordance with laws and disciplinary regulations.
Led by Sun Chunlan, member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and vice premier of the State Council, the Central Guiding Team arrived in Wuhan on January 27. Empowered to comprehensively strengthen frontline epidemic prevention and control, the work of the Central Guiding Team covered five main areas: 
1. strengthen prevention and control at the source, organize measures such as traffic restrictions and the extension of the Spring Festival break, in order to impede virus transmission; 
2. do everything possible to deploy resources to satisfy the need for medical workers and medical supplies, increase the number of hospital beds, and ensure the supply of daily necessities for local people; 
3. coordinate the effort to treat and cure patients, build temporary treatment centers, implement thorough infection screening, triage, and multi-level treatment for patients, manage four categories of confirmed patients, suspected cases, fever sufferers, and close contacts, and promote the use of traditional Chinese medicine in disease treatment; 
4. organize epidemiological investigations, tracking and studying of the source of infection and the route and mechanism of transmission, and produce timely analyses of epidemic trends; 
5. clarify the duties for administrative divisions, industry sectors, units, and individuals and ensure their full performance.
The Central Guiding Team worked alongside the people of Wuhan and other locations in Hubei province, and focused their work on epidemic prevention and control, treating and curing patients, and ensuring medical supplies, thus playing a key role at the front line of the battle.
分区分级做好疫情防控工作
 2020年1月25日,中共中央政治局常委会专题会议对科学防治、精准施策作出部署,要求分类指导各地做好疫情防控工作。2月17日,国务院应对新冠肺炎疫情联防联控机制印发《关于科学防治精准施策分区分级做好新冠肺炎疫情防控工作的指导意见》。《意见》指出,各地各有关部门要贯彻中央关于突出重点、统筹兼顾,分类指导、分区施策的要求,依据《中华人民共和国传染病防治法》《突发公共卫生事件应急条例》等法律法规,分区分级精准防控,统筹疫情防控与经济社会秩序恢复。 
 分区分级做好疫情防控工作,就是立足地区特点和疫情形势因应施策。各地要制定差异化的县域防控和恢复经济社会秩序的措施,即以县(市、区、旗)为单位,依据人口、发病情况综合研判,科学划分疫情风险等级,明确分级分类的防控策略;划小管控单元,辖区内的城乡社区、机关、企事业单位、社会组织和个人均应按要求落实相关防控措施。湖北省和武汉市要采取更严格、更有针对性、更加管用有效的措施,内防扩散、外防输出,把疫情扩散遏制住;要切实保障各种物资供应,确保人民群众正常基本生活。北京市要全力做好疫情防控工作,坚决抓好外防输入、内防扩散两大环节,尽最大可能切断传染源,尽最大可能控制疫情波及范围,确保首都安全。其他地区要加强组织领导,坚持依法防控,做好分区分级差异化防控,落实防控要求和救治要求,有序恢复生产生活秩序。
Region-Specific and Multi-Level Approaches 
to Epidemic Prevention and Control
In addition to science-based and targeted measures against the virus, the meeting of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee on January 25, 2020 also required sector-specific guidance on epidemic prevention and control. 
On February 17, the inter-agency task force under the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council issued a package of guidelines. According to the guidelines, all provincial governments and central departments must enforce the central leadership’s requirements by focusing on key issues, strengthening coordination, giving sector-specific guidance, and applying different policies for different areas. They were required to take region-specific, multi-level, targeted approaches in accordance with the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Prevention and Treatment of Infectious Diseases and the Regulations on the Urgent Handling of Public Health Emergencies, coordinate epidemic prevention and control, and restore economic and social order.
Region-specific and multi-level approaches were intended to cater to the specific features and circumstances of the epidemic in different regions. In line with the guidelines, differentiated policies were adopted for epidemic control and the restoration of economic and social order in different locations. Counties and other county-level administrative regions (cities, districts and banners) were instructed to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the local population and the severity of the epidemic, produce a scientific classification of the virus risk, and adopt appropriate prevention and control strategies. They should divide their management and control grids into smaller units, and urban and rural communities, government bodies, enterprises and institutions, social organizations and individuals within their jurisdiction would follow the relevant rules. 
Hubei province and Wuhan city were required to take more stringent, more targeted, and more effective measures to curb the spread of the epidemic within their jurisdictions and beyond, and ensure the supply of all kinds of materials and basic necessities for the local people. Beijing was to make every effort to fight the epidemic, resolutely guard against incomers carrying the virus, and any spread within the city, and cut off all sources of infection to ensure the city’s safety. Other areas were to strengthen organization and leadership, abide by relevant laws and regulations, carry out differentiated epidemic control, implement appropriate requirements for epidemic prevention and treatment of patients, and restore orderly work and daily life.
及时准确、公开透明发布疫情信息
 2020年1月25日,中共中央政治局常委会专题会议强调,要及时准确、公开透明发布疫情信息,回应境内外关切;要及时向世界卫生组织、有关国家和地区组织以及港澳台地区通报疫情信息,加强合作、全力应对,共同维护地区和全球卫生安全。2月3日,习近平在中共中央政治局常委会会议上发表讲话,要求多层次、高密度发布权威信息,正视存在的问题,回应群众的关切,增强及时性、针对性、专业性。2月23日,习近平在统筹推进新冠肺炎疫情防控和经济社会发展工作部署会议上发表讲话,要求完善疫情信息发布,依法做到公开、透明、及时、准确。 
 按照中央统一部署和要求,国务院新闻办公室1月26日起不定期就新冠病毒肺炎疫情联防联控工作有关情况举行发布会;2月15日首次将发布会现场前移至抗疫最前沿——湖北武汉。1月27日起,国家卫生健康委每天上午举行新闻发布会。2月3日起,国务院应对新冠肺炎疫情联防联控机制新闻发布会每日举行。与此同时,湖北省及部分疫情比较重的地方每天也都举行新闻发布会。上述发布会及时通报疫情情况、防控举措、抗“疫”效果,主动回应社会关切、压缩谣言空间,进一步提高了新闻舆论工作的针对性和有效性。
Prompt Release of 
Accurate Epidemic Information
At its meeting on January 25, 2020, the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee demanded prompt release of accurate information on the epidemic and a timely response to concerns at home and abroad. It also required timely updates of the epidemic to the WHO, relevant countries and regional organizations, Hong Kong SAR, Macao SAR and Taiwan province, and enhanced cooperation in an all-out response to the epidemic, in order to safeguard regional and global health.
Speaking to the meeting of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau on February 3, Xi Jinping required that relevant agencies release frequent authoritative information at different levels, address existing problems squarely, and respond to public concerns in a timely and well-conceived manner and with a clear aim. At another meeting held on February 23 to promote nationwide epidemic control and economic and social development, he urged better release of epidemic information, which was to be made in an open, transparent, timely and accurate manner in accordance with the law.
Following the arrangements and requirements by the central leadership, from January 26 the State Council Information Office held press conferences at irregular intervals. On February 15, it moved its pressroom to Wuhan, the forefront of epidemic prevention and control. Starting from January 27, the National Health Commission (NHC) held press conferences every morning. Starting from February 3, the inter-agency task force under the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council held press conferences daily. Hubei province and other regions severely hit by the epidemic also held press conferences every day. 
By releasing the latest information on epidemic, prevention and control measures and effects, these press conferences seized the initiative in responding to public concerns and quashing rumors, thus further improving the effectiveness of information disclosure.
集中患者、集中专家、
集中资源、集中救治
 2020年1月25日,中共中央政治局常委会专题会议强调,要按照“集中患者、集中专家、集中资源、集中救治”的原则,将重症病例集中到综合力量强的定点医疗机构进行救治,同时及时收治所有确诊病人。 
 集中患者、集中救治,是防控疫情扩散和对确诊患者有效治疗的重要手段。集中患者既可以同步进行医学观察和治疗,方便资源调配,尽早治疗,避免轻症拖成重症,还可以防止正常人群的交叉感染。湖北响应中央要求,对“四类人员”集中收治,精准掌握确诊患者数、疑似患者数、发热门诊有症状患者数、密切接触人员中有症状患者数,以及各医院、隔离点、方舱可用床位数、已用床位数、剩余床位数等,确保动态数据准确无误。
  集中专家、集中资源,是应对疫情的重要措施。中央通过从全国调集医疗资源支援武汉重症患者医疗救治,整建制接管新的重症患者收治病区等措施手段,以及在此基础上建立院士巡诊、多学科综合治疗、整体护理等一系列制度,确保重症患者科学救治。
Treating the Infected in Dedicated Facilities by Senior Medical Professionals from All Over the Country with All Necessary Resources
The meeting held on January 25 by the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee laid down a guiding principle of “treating the infected in dedicated facilities by senior medical professionals from all over the country with all necessary resources.” Severe cases were to be gathered into designated medical institutions with advanced treatment capabilities, and all confirmed cases were to be received by hospitals without delay.
Gathering patients for medical treatment is an important means to prevent the spread of an epidemic and to provide effective treatment to confirmed cases. With the infected being received in dedicated facilities, medical observation and treatment can be carried out at the same time, which can facilitate the effective allocation of resources. Also, patients can get treatment as early as possible, thus reducing the risk of deterioration. Plus, gathering the patients together can prevent cross-infection among healthy people. 
Following this guiding principle set by the CPC Central Committee, Hubei gathered four categories of people: confirmed cases, suspected cases, patients with a fever, and close contacts. This made it possible to keep an accurate count of confirmed cases, suspected cases, symptomatic cases in fever clinics, and symptomatic cases among close contacts. It was also possible to get accurate information about the number of beds available, occupied or vacant in hospitals, isolation centers and temporary treatment centers.
Assembling medical experts and concentrating all necessary resources were important measures to deal with the epidemic. Medical materials from all over the country were collected to help Wuhan treat severe cases, and new medical institutions in the city that were designated to receive severe patients were taken over wholly by appointed medical teams. On this basis, an array of working mechanisms such as academician visits, multidisciplinary comprehensive treatment, and holistic nursing were established, ensuring that severe cases could receive treatment properly grounded in science.
着力做好重点地区疫情防控工作
 中共中央政治局常务委员会2020年2月3日召开会议,习近平主持会议并强调,要着力做好重点地区疫情防控工作。只有集中力量把重点地区的疫情控制住了,才能从根本上尽快扭转全国疫情蔓延局面。要重点抓好防治力量的区域统筹,坚决把救治资源和防护资源集中到抗击疫情第一线,优先满足一线医护人员和救治病人需要。
 湖北省特别是武汉市等重点地区的疫情防控,是全国疫情防控的重中之重。稳住了湖北疫情,就稳定了全国大局。着力做好重点地区的疫情防控工作,既是广大湖北人民特别是病患和家属的迫切期望,也是防控疫情蔓延扩散的必然要求。
 会议指出,湖北省特别是武汉市要进一步完善和加强防控,严格落实早发现、早报告、早隔离、早治疗措施,加强疫情监测,集中救治患者,对所有密切接触人员采取居家医学观察,完善和强化防止疫情向外扩散的措施。各地区要压实地方党委和政府责任,强化社区防控网格化管理,采取更加周密精准、更加管用有效的措施,防止疫情蔓延。做好重点地区疫情防控工作,医治患者是化解存量,防控蔓延是防止增量,这是做好重点地区疫情防控的一套组合拳。
Key Regions: Focus of Epidemic Control
On February 3, the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee held a meeting to study and discuss the issue of epidemic control. Xi Jinping chaired the meeting and underscored that key regions were the focus of epidemic control. Only by concentrating efforts to control the epidemic in key regions could China quickly halt the spread of the virus across the country. It was essential to coordinate regional resources, concentrate treatment and protective resources to the front line, and ensure the needs of frontline medical personnel and the patients as a matter of priority.
Hubei province, especially Wuhan and other key regions, were the top priorities of the nationwide war against the novel coronavirus. The situation of the whole country would stabilize if the epidemic in Wuhan and Hubei was brought under control. Making greater efforts to control the epidemic in key regions echoed the urgent wishes of the people of Hubei, especially patients and their families. 
The meeting pointed out that Hubei province, especially the city of Wuhan, should further improve and tighten their control, strictly implement the principle of “early detection, early reporting, early isolation and early treatment,” strengthen epidemic monitoring, gather patients together for medical treatment, require all close contacts to stay at home for medical observation, and apply effective measures to prevent the spread of the epidemic. 
The meeting required that local Party committees and governments must fully take on their responsibilities, strengthen management through a grid of communities, and take more thorough, more targeted and more effective measures to contain the outbreak. Treating the patients on the one hand and blocking the virus from spreading on the other hand– these two together contributed to effective containment of the epidemic.
全力以赴救治患者,
保障医疗防护物资供应
 中共中央政治局常委会2020年2月3日召开会议强调,要全力以赴救治患者,保障医疗防护物资供应,努力提高收治率和治愈率、降低感染率和病死率。
 全力以赴救治患者,是防控工作的突出任务。会议强调,集中收治医院要尽快建成投入使用,继续根据需要从全国调派医务人员支援武汉,同时保护好医务人员身心健康。要统筹做好人员调配,尽量把精兵强将集中起来、把重症病人集中起来,统一进行救治,及时推广各医院救治重症病人的有效做法。 
 2月1日,国务院总理李克强赴疫情防控国家重点医疗物资保障调度平台考察时强调,全力保障重点医疗防护物资生产供应,加快医疗防控物资生产、增加供应保障能力,是降低疫情感染患者死亡率、提高治愈率和做好防控工作的必要条件。增加供应就是增强抗击疫情的战斗力,要充分挖掘潜在产能,在保证质量的基础上争分夺秒增加生产,还要创造条件扩大产能。要完善不同场所、不同人群科学使用医疗防控物资的标准,医护工作者战斗在抗击疫情第一线舍己救人,自身也需要防护,重点医疗防控物资首先要保证他们的需要。国务院联防联控机制要加强重点医疗防控物资全国统一调度,各职能部门要齐心协力,对湖北省特别是武汉市等疫情防控重点地区,医疗防控物资要优先保障。
Ensuring Medical Supplies 
and Treating Patients at All Cost
The Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee emphasized at its meeting on February 3 that the supply of all kinds of medical protective materials must be ensured and no effort would be spared to treat patients. It also demanded that the admission and recovery rates be raised, and the infection and case fatality rates be reduced.
Sparing no effort in treating patients was a prominent task in epidemic control. The central leadership decided at the meeting that more hospitals for collective treatment would be built and brought into service as quickly as possible, and more medical workers from other parts of the country would be dispatched to meet Wuhan’s need. They also emphasized the need to protect the physical and psychological health of medical workers. They required coordination in the deployment of personnel to concentrate the most competent medical workers and gather all severe cases for treatment, and called for prompt generalization of effective practices from individual hospitals in curing severe patients.
While inspecting the national distribution center for major anti-epidemic medical supplies, Premier Li Keqiang called for greater efforts to ensure the production and supply of key medical protective equipment, to speed up the manufacturing of anti-epidemic medical supplies, and to increase supply capacity. He said that these efforts together would provide the necessary conditions for lowering the mortality rate, raising the recovery rate, and implementing solid prevention and control measures. An increase in supply will enhance fighting capacity against the epidemic, therefore it was essential to make full use of production potential, to brook no delay in increasing output while ensuring quality, and to take all possible measures to expand supply. The premier emphasized the need to improve the standards for appropriate use of anti-epidemic medical supplies in different places and for different groups of people. He said that medical workers fighting at the front line also needed protection and they should have priority access to key medical protective equipment. 
He required the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council to improve unified distribution of major anti-epidemic medical supplies across the country. All functional departments were to make concerted efforts to ensure the supply of medical resources to Hubei province, especially Wuhan and other key regions hit hard by the epidemic.
优先满足一线医护人员
和救治病人需要
 2020年2月3日,习近平主持召开中共中央政治局常委会会议,强调要重点抓好防治力量的区域统筹,坚决把救治资源和防护资源集中到抗击疫情第一线,优先满足一线医护人员和救治病人需要。2月14日,习近平在中共中央全面深化改革委员会第十二次会议讲话中强调,要平战结合、补齐短板,健全优化重大疫情救治体系,建立健全分级、分层、分流的传染病等重大疫情救治机制,支持一线临床技术创新,及时推广有效救治方案。2月23日,习近平在统筹推进新冠肺炎疫情防控和经济社会发展工作部署会议讲话中强调,要发挥好高水平医疗团队作用,把好钢用在刀刃上,在重症救治、病例指导、方案优化等方面更好发挥他们的作用。
  医务人员是战胜疫情的中坚力量。从医院救治一线到科研攻关前沿,从完善诊疗方案、精心救治患者,到治愈率不断提高、病亡率持续下降,各地不断传来患者治愈出院的好消息。广大医务人员为打赢疫情防控阻击战筑起了生命防线、提供了专业支撑。
  各级党委和政府积极采取务实、贴心的举措,帮助广大医务人员解决实际困难和问题,免除后顾之忧。措施体现在三个方面:把生活保障做到位,改善工作和休息条件,合理安排医务人员轮休,落实有关待遇,提供良好后勤服务;把安全保障做到位,医疗防护物资优先满足一线医护人员和救治病人需要,加大对暴力伤医违法行为打击力度;把人文关怀做到位,加强心理危机干预和心理疏导,保护好医务人员身心健康。
Ensuring Priority Access of Frontline 
Medical Workers and Patients
On February 3, at the meeting of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, Xi Jinping emphasized the need to coordinate epidemic prevention and control forces among different regions, concentrate treatment and protective resources on the front line, and give priority to the needs of frontline medical workers and patients. 
On February 14, at the meeting of the Commission for Comprehensive Reform under the CPC Central Committee, Xi emphasized the need to be prepared for both times of peace and times of epidemic, to improve areas of weakness, to improve the medical treatment system for major epidemics, to establish a sound graded, multilevel treatment mechanism for infectious diseases and other major epidemic threats, to support innovation in frontline clinical technology, and to quickly publicize effective treatment plans. 
On February 23, speaking to the meeting held to coordinate epidemic prevention and control and economic and social development, he urged the use of high-level medical teams where they were most needed: treating severe cases, guiding medical practice, and optimizing treatment plans.
Medical workers were the spine in the battle against the epidemic. From saving lives in frontline hospitals through conducting research to tackling key problems, from updating the guidelines on diagnosis and treatment, through treating the patients by all possible means, to continuously raising the recovery rate and lowering the case fatality rate, heartening reports poured in from all over the country as more and more patients were cured and discharged from the hospital.
Party committees and governments at all levels took active, pragmatic and detailed measures to help medical workers overcome difficulties, solve problems, and eliminate worries. First, they offered them more support in daily life by improving their working and resting conditions, properly arranging off-days in rotation, implementing relevant preferential policies and providing good logistics services. Second, they offered them more security by providing proper medical protective materials to frontline medical workers and patients as a priority, and punishing acts of violence in hospitals. Third, they offered them more pastoral care and psychological intervention and counseling, and protected both their physical and mental health.
加大科研攻关力度
中共中央政治局常委会2020年2月3日召开会议强调,要加大科研攻关力度,战胜疫病离不开科技支撑。会议指出,要科学论证病毒来源,尽快查明传染源和传播途径,密切跟踪病毒变异情况,及时研究防控策略和措施。要调动高校、科研院所、企业等各方面积极性,组织动员全国科研工作者参与疫情防控方面的科研攻关,推动相关数据和病例资料的开放共享,加快病毒溯源、传播力、传播机理等研究,及时完善防控策略和措施。要加强有效药品和疫苗研发,注重科研攻关与临床、防控实践相结合。要鼓励专家学者增强担当精神、职业责任,在科学研究的前提下多拿出专业意见和建议。
  加大科研攻关,直接关系人民身体健康和生命安全。打赢疫情防控攻坚战,加大科研攻关是重要制高点。从解码病毒到疫苗研发,从查明传染源头到切断传播途径,所有工作的开展,都需要秉承科学论证的“方法论”。疫情防控是总体战,加大科研攻关,就是为战胜疫病注入关键性力量。
Reinforcing Scientific R&D Against COVID-19
At its meeting on February 3 the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee emphasized the importance of support from science and technology in defeating the epidemic, and urged more scientific research to this end. The meeting highlighted the need to find the origin of the virus, identify the infection source and transmission route as soon as possible, closely track mutations, and develop prevention and control strategies and measures without delay. 
Universities, scientific research institutes and enterprises were mobilized, and researchers across the country organized to join in anti-virus research. It was also necessary to share relevant data and medical records, speed up research on the traceability, transmission and transmission mechanism of the virus, and make timely improvements to prevention and control strategies and measures. A greater effort was invested in the development of effective drugs and vaccines, and interaction between scientific research, clinical trials and prevention control practices. Experts and scholars were asked to take on more responsibilities, and come up with more professional proposals and solutions based on scientific research.
Science has a direct bearing on the health and safety of the people, and scientists played a key role in the campaign against the virus. From decoding the coronavirus to vaccine development, from identifying the infection source to cutting off transmission routes, all work was conducted following scientific methodologies, so as to provide a strong force in the war against COVID-19.
切实维护正常经济社会秩序
中共中央政治局常委会2020年2月3日召开会议强调,要切实维护正常经济社会秩序。
  物资供应充足,市场秩序井然,是确保宏观经济稳定运行的基础。会议指出,要在做好疫情防控的同时,保持生产生活平稳有序,避免因确诊病例增多、生活物资供应紧张等引发群众恐慌,带来次生“灾害”。要确保主副食品生产、流通、供应,确保蔬菜、肉蛋奶、粮食等居民生活必需品供应。要落实“菜篮子”市长负责制,积极组织蔬菜等副食品生产,加强物资调配和市场供应,采取措施保证运送生活必需品的车辆顺利通行。要做好煤电油气重点供应,保障居民用能需求。要加强心理干预和疏导,有针对性地做好人文关怀。
  会议指出,要妥善处理疫情防控中出现的各类矛盾和问题,加强社会治安工作,依法严厉打击利用疫情哄抬物价、囤积居奇、趁火打劫等扰乱社会秩序的违法犯罪行为,严厉打击制售假劣药品、医疗器械、医用卫生材料等违法犯罪行为,坚决依法打击各类违法犯罪,维护社会稳定和国家安全。
Maintaining Normal Economic 
and Social Order
At its meeting on February 3, the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee emphasized the need to maintain normal economic and social order.
Adequate supplies and market order ensure the stable operation of the macro-economy. The meeting pointed out that it was necessary to maintain social stability and orderly business during the fight against the epidemic, so as to avoid public panic and “secondary disasters” caused by an increase in confirmed cases and a shortage of daily necessities. 
It was necessary to ensure the production, distribution and supply of staple and non-staple food, and the supply of vegetables, meat, eggs, milk, grain and other daily necessities. City mayors were asked to earnestly fulfill their responsibility of guaranteeing the people’s “vegetable basket” (non-grain food supply), actively organize the production of vegetables and other non-staple food, coordinate the allocation of materials and market supply, and take measures to ensure the smooth passage of vehicles transporting daily necessities. Supplies of coal, electricity, oil and gas had to be maintained. Psychological counseling and pastoral care was provided to those in need. 
The meeting also required efforts to properly handle all kinds of difficulties and problems in epidemic control, and maintain law and order. To safeguard social stability and national security, severe punishments would be meted out in accordance with the law on criminal and other illegal activities such as price gouging, hoarding, speculation and other acts that disturb social order, as well as the production and sale of fake and sub-standard medicines, medical devices, and medical sanitary materials.
防控力量向社区下沉
 2020年2月10日,习近平在北京调研指导新冠肺炎疫情防控工作时强调,社区是疫情联防联控的第一线,也是外防输入、内防扩散最有效的防线,把社区这道防线守住,就能有效切断疫情扩散蔓延的渠道,全国都要充分发挥社区在疫情防控中的阻击作用,把防控力量向社区下沉,加强社区各项防控措施的落实,使所有社区成为疫情防控的坚强堡垒。 
  社区是城市管理的神经末梢,是最基本的管理单元,也是力量相对薄弱的地方。疫情发生以来,中国各地充分发挥社区在疫情防控中的阻击作用,把防控力量沉到基层、落到实处。从入户排查到重点人群监控,从疫情发现报告到病患及时收治,广大社区构筑起疫情防控的人民防线;广大党员干部冲上一线,拿出战时状态的精气神和行动力,靠前指挥、冲在一线,在紧张的战斗中提高能力、锤炼作风;社区工作人员用脚步丈量民情民意,及时掌握在材料报表和办公室里察觉不到的情况,通过发现问题、解决问题推动防控工作做实做细,与广大群众一起为夺取疫情防控最终胜利而不懈努力。
Empowering Communities to Prevent and
Control the Spread of the Coronavirus
When reviewing Beijing’s COVID-19 prevention measures on February 10, Xi Jinping emphasized that the community is the front line of joint prevention and control, and the most effective line of defense to stop the coronavirus from entering and spreading within a region. We could effectively cut off the route of spread if we held firm the line of defense at the communities. The communities played their due role, and were empowered to apply various prevention and control measures, so that every community became a strong bastion defending against the epidemic.
Communities are the nerve endings of urban management. They are also a point where the administration is relatively weak. Following the outbreak of the epidemic, communities across China were mobilized to conduct door-to-door screening, monitoring of target groups, and detection of suspected cases for timely treatment. A large number of Party members and officials hurried to the front line and took resolute action. This helped improve their ability to think and act. Many community workers visited families in need to understand their true situation – something they would never have found by reading reports in their offices – and addressed themselves to getting problems solved. By working with the residents, they build great synergy in the battle to defeat the epidemic.
统筹疫情防控与经济社会秩序恢复
 2020年2月12日,习近平主持召开中共中央政治局常委会会议,强调要统筹疫情防控与经济社会秩序恢复。会议指出,今年是全面建成小康社会和“十三五”规划收官之年,各级党委和政府要努力把新冠肺炎疫情影响降到最低,保持经济平稳运行和社会和谐稳定,努力实现党中央确定的各项目标任务;要加大宏观政策调节力度,针对疫情带来的影响,研究制定相应政策措施;要更好发挥积极的财政政策作用,加大资金投入,保障好各地疫情防控资金需要;要继续研究出台阶段性、有针对性的减税降费措施,缓解企业经营困难;要保持稳健的货币政策灵活适度,对防疫物资生产企业加大优惠利率信贷支持力度,对受疫情影响较大的地区、行业和企业完善差异化优惠金融服务;要以更大力度实施好就业优先政策,完善支持中小微企业的财税、金融、社保等政策;要在确保做好防疫工作的前提下,分类指导,有序推动央企、国企等各类企业复工复产;要多措并举做好高校毕业生等群体就业工作,确保就业大局稳定。
 2020年2月23日,习近平在统筹推进新冠肺炎疫情防控和经济社会发展工作部署会议的讲话中强调,各级党委和政府要坚定必胜信念,咬紧牙关,继续毫不放松抓紧抓实抓细各项防控工作;要变压力为动力、善于化危为机,有序恢复生产生活秩序,强化“六稳”举措,加大政策调节力度,把国家发展的巨大潜力和强大动能充分释放出来,努力实现今年经济社会发展目标任务。
  统筹推进疫情防控和经济社会发展工作,关键是抓好中央决策部署的贯彻落实。疫情严重或高风险地区继续集中精力抓好疫情防控工作,中风险地区依据防控形势有序复工复产,低风险地区把防控策略调整到外防输入上来,全面恢复生产生活秩序。
Coordinating Epidemic Prevention and Control and Restoration of Economic and Social Order
While presiding over a meeting of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee on February 12, Xi Jinping called for coordination between epidemic prevention and control and restoration of economic and social order. As China will complete building a moderately prosperous society in all aspects and conclude its 13th Five-year Plan in 2020, Party committees and governments at all levels were instructed to minimize the impacts of the COVID-19 epidemic, maintain smooth economic operation and social stability, and fulfill the goals and tasks set by the CPC Central Committee. They were to do the following:
* strengthen macro policy regulation and formulate policies and measures to address the impact of the epidemic; 
* better leverage a proactive fiscal policy and increase budgetary input to ensure the funding for epidemic prevention and control in various localities; 
* introduce phased and targeted tax cuts and fee reductions to alleviate the operational difficulties of enterprises; 
* maintain a prudent and flexible monetary policy, provide more credit aid with preferential interest rates to enterprises producing anti-epidemic materials, and improve differentiated preferential financial services for the areas, industries and enterprises hardest-hit by the epidemic; 
* implement the employment priority policy, and improve the fiscal, taxation, financial and social insurance policies that support small and medium-sized enterprises; 
* give classified guidance for the resumption of work in central and state-owned enterprises and other businesses in an orderly manner on condition that all epidemic prevention work was proceeding; 
* take multiple measures to promote the employment of college graduates and other groups, and ensure overall stability of employment. 
On February 23, at the meeting to advance prevention and control of the COVID-19 epidemic and get the economy and society back to normal, Xi Jinping emphasized that Party committees and governments at all levels must have confidence in victory and continue to implement prevention and control measures. They were to turn pressure into power, turn adversity into opportunities, restore production in an orderly manner, maintain stability in employment, financial operations, foreign trade, foreign investment, domestic investment, and expectations, strengthen policy regulation, and strive to achieve the goals and tasks set for this year’s economic and social development. 
To coordinate the endeavors, the key lay in implementing the decisions made by the CPC Central Committee. The regions hit hardest by the epidemic and regions with high risk of infection would continue to concentrate on epidemic prevention and control. Medium-risk regions would resume work in an orderly manner. Low-risk regions would shift their focus to guard against importing the infection through external cases, and fully restore local work, business activity, and normal daily life.
Special Terminology
专有词汇
不明原因肺炎
 不明原因肺炎,是中国卫生部门为及时发现和处理SARS、人禽流感以及其他传染性肺炎提出的一种医学概念。不明原因肺炎送检需满足四个标准:发热(腋下体温≥38℃);具有肺炎的影像学特征;发病早期白细胞总数降低或正常,或淋巴细胞分类计数减少;经规范抗菌药物治疗3~5天,病情无明显改善或呈进行性加重。
 2019年12月以来,武汉出现多例不明原因病毒性肺炎病例。12月31日,武汉市卫健委发布通报称,武汉“不明原因肺炎”病例的临床表现主要为发热,少数病人呼吸困难,胸片呈双肺浸润性病灶,收治患者最早发病时间为2019年12月8日。2020年1月7日,该不明原因肺炎病毒病原体被确定为“新型冠状病毒”。疫情发生后,武汉市迅速采取严厉防控措施,包括病例搜索、隔离、指定医院收治、对密切接触者进行医学观察、应急监测等,并果断实施“早诊断、早隔离、早报告和早治疗”的收治方案。
Pneumonia of Unknown Cause
Pneumonia of unknown cause is a medical term coined by the Chinese health authorities to facilitate timely detection and treatment of SARS, human avian influenza and other infectious pneumonia. Patients suffering from pneumonia of unknown cause display the following clinical signs and symptoms: fever (axillary temperature is 38 degrees centigrade or higher), imaging features of pneumonia, decreasing or normal leukocyte count or decreasing lymphocyte count in the early stage of the disease, and no significant improvement, or even progressive aggravation, after standard anti-microbial treatment for three to five days.
In December 2019, more than one case of viral pneumonia of unknown cause was reported in Wuhan. On December 31, Wuhan Municipal Health Commission announced that the clinical presentation of recent cases of pneumonia of unknown cause was mainly fever, and a small number of patients had breathing difficulties and infiltration in both lungs. The earliest onset of the disease was on December 8, 2019. On January 7, 2020, the pathogen of this pneumonia virus was identified as “novel coronavirus.” 
After the outbreak of the epidemic, Wuhan quickly took strict prevention and control measures, including identifying cases, isolation, admission to designated hospitals, medical observation of close contacts, and emergency monitoring. The principles of “early detection, early reporting, early isolation and early treatment” were also resolutely implemented.
新型冠状病毒
 新型冠状病毒因2019年病毒性肺炎病例而被发现,是以前从未在人类中发现的冠状病毒新毒株。已知的冠状病毒可引起感冒或中东呼吸综合征(MERS)、严重急性呼吸综合征(SARS)等不同程度的疾病。
 2020年2月8日,国家卫生健康委将新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎暂命名为新型冠状病毒肺炎(简称新冠肺炎),并于2月19日发布《新型冠状病毒肺炎诊疗方案(试行第六版)》,指出经呼吸道飞沫和密切接触传播是主要的传播途径,在相对封闭的环境中长时间暴露于高浓度气溶胶情况下中存在经气溶胶传播的可能;以发热、干咳、乏力为主要临床表现,潜伏期为1-14天。目前,针对新冠肺炎尚无可用疫苗。
  世界卫生组织1月12日将此种新病毒暂命名为“2019-nCoV”,并于2月11日将新冠肺炎正式命名为“COVID-19”,其中"CO"代表Corona(冠状),"VI"代表Virus(病毒),"D"代表Disease(疾病),"19"代表疾病发现的年份2019年。
Novel Coronavirus
The novel coronavirus, first discovered through a viral pneumonia case in 2019, is a new strain of coronavirus that had never been found in humans before. The coronaviruses already known can cause cold or Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and other diseases of varying gravity.
On February 8, 2020, China’s National Health Commission temporarily named the pneumonia caused by the novel coronavirus as “novel coronavirus pneumonia” in Chinese. The commission issued the Guidelines on the Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment (Provisional 6th Edition) on February 19, pointing out that respiratory droplets and close unprotected contacts were the main routes of transmission, and that transmission through aerosols was possible in the case of long-term exposure to high concentration aerosols in a relatively closed environment. The main signs and symptoms of infection included fever, dry cough and fatigue, and the incubation period varied from 1 to 14 days. There was no vaccine available against the disease.
The WHO temporarily named the new virus “2019-nCoV” on January 12, and officially named the pneumonia caused by the virus “COVID-19” on February 11. “CO” stands for corona, “VI” for virus, “D” for disease, and “19” for the year 2019 in which the disease was first discovered.
新型冠状病毒肺炎
 2019年12月以来,湖北省武汉市陆续发现多例不明原因肺炎病例,经检测结果显示冠状病毒核酸阳性,而后证实这是一种由新型动物源性病毒致发的疾病。2020年2月8日,国家卫生健康委将“新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎”暂命名为“新型冠状病毒肺炎”,简称“新冠肺炎”。2月11日,世界卫生组织发布疫情报告,将此次由新型冠状病毒引发的疾病正式命名为“COVID-19”。对于新冠肺炎,人群普遍缺乏免疫力,自我保护措施包括保持手部和呼吸道卫生、坚持安全饮食习惯、尽可能避免与任何表现出有呼吸道疾病症状的人密切接触等。
COVID-19
In December 2019, several cases of pneumonia of unknown cause were identified in Wuhan, Hubei province. Nucleic acid testing returned positive results for a coronavirus, and it was later confirmed that the disease was caused by a new type of zoonotic virus. On February 8, 2020, the NHC temporarily named the disease “novel coronavirus pneumonia.” On February 11, the WHO released a situation report and officially named the disease caused by the novel coronavirus as “COVID-19.” 
There is no known pre-existing immunity in humans, and self-protective measures include maintaining hand and respiratory hygiene, adhering to safe eating habits, and avoiding close contact with anyone who shows symptoms of respiratory diseases.
人传人
自2019年12月31日“不明原因肺炎”由武汉卫生健康委公开披露以来,病毒是否人传人一直没有明确答案。2020年1月20日,国家卫生健康委高级别专家组组长钟南山院士在接受采访时明确表示,此次新冠肺炎存在人传人的现象。这一科学判断让大众对于新冠肺炎疫情有了更深刻、更清晰的认知。自此,全国各地开始采取严格的防控措施。1月21日,世界卫生组织称,最新报告的感染信息表明,可能存在持续人传人。2月18日,钟南山院士在接受采访时提出,为有效阻止病毒人传人,迫切需要解决两个问题:一是正常人和病人分开,二是新冠肺炎病人和流感病人分开。
Human-to-Human Transmission
After the disclosure of this pneumonia of unknown cause by Wuhan Municipal Health Commission on December 31, 2019, there was no clear answer to whether the virus could be transmitted from human to human until January 20, 2020. On that day Academician Zhong Nanshan, who heads China’s COVID-19 Expert Team and the High-level Expert Group of the NHC, confirmed in an interview that there was human-to-human transmission for the novel coronavirus. This scientific judgment gave the public a clearer understanding of the disease. Subsequently, strict prevention and control measures were enforced throughout the country. 
On January 21, the WHO stated that the latest reported infection information suggested regular human-to-human transmission. In an interview on February 18, Zhong Nanshan pointed out that to effectively stop human-to-human transmission of the virus, healthy people must be separated from the infected, and COVID-19 patients must be separated from flu patients.
国际关注的突发公共卫生事件
2020年1月30日,世界卫生组织总干事谭德塞在日内瓦召开新闻发布会,宣布新冠病毒疫情为国际关注的突发公共卫生事件。《国际卫生条例(2005)》规定,国际关注的突发公共卫生事件是指通过疾病的国际传播构成对其它国家的公共卫生风险并可能需要采取协调一致的国际应对措施的不同寻常的事件。在某种疫情被宣布为国际关注的突发公共卫生事件后,各成员国均负有作出迅速反应的法律责任。
  谭德塞表示,为中国领导层和中国人民抗击疫情的决心感到震撼,中国采取了超常规的有力措施,在很多方面为应对疫情作出了榜样。他十分赞赏中国在应对疫情方面展现出的高透明度,强调世卫组织相信中国的疫情一定能够得到遏制,不赞成甚至反对对中国采取旅行或贸易禁令。
  自《国际卫生条例(2005)》生效以来,世界卫生组织共宣布了六次国际关注的突发公共卫生事件:2009年甲型H1N1流感疫情,2014年埃博拉疫情,2014年野生型脊髓灰质炎疫情,2016年寨卡病毒疫情,2019年埃博拉疫情和2020年新冠肺炎疫情。
Public Health Emergency of International Concern
On January 30, 2020 in Geneva, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus declared the novel coronavirus outbreak a “public health emergency of international concern.”
According to the International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005), a public health emergency of international concern is an unusual event that poses a public health risk to other countries through international spread of the disease and may require a coordinated international response. After an epidemic has been declared a public health emergency of international concern, member states of the WHO all have the legal responsibility to respond quickly.
Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus said that he was impressed by the response of the Chinese leadership and the Chinese people, noting that China had taken extraordinary measures to contain the outbreak and was setting a new standard for response to such an outbreak. He praised China’s commitment to transparency and to protecting the world’s people, and stressed that the WHO believed that the epidemic in China could be contained. He did not recommend – indeed he actually opposed – any restrictions on travel and trade, or other measures against China.
Since the entry into force of the IHR (2005), the WHO has announced six public health emergencies of international concern: the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, the 2014 Ebola epidemic, the 2014 wild poliovirus epidemic, the 2016 Zika virus epidemic, the 2019 Ebola epidemic, and the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic.
世界卫生组织专家组赴武汉考察
 2020年1月20日至21日,世界卫生组织首次派出专家组赴武汉实地考察,就病毒传染性、重症病例和传染源等问题同中方进行交流,确认疫情传播途径出现人传人以及医务人员感染。世界卫生组织赞赏中国主动通报疫情信息和分享病毒基因序列,肯定中国政府在短时间内采取的各项有力有效举措,称道中国快速研究和识别新的病毒种类,认可中国近年来在医学研究能力方面的进展。
 2月16日起,中国—世界卫生组织新冠肺炎联合专家考察组在北京、广东和四川三地进行考察。专家组集聚全球多个机构的流行病学、病毒学、临床管理、疫情控制和公共卫生等领域权威人士。2月22日,联合专家组赴武汉继续考察,并与中国流行病学专家合作,调查病毒源头,确认病毒是否已经停止从动物向人类传播。
Field Visits of WHO Experts to Wuhan
On January 20-21, the WHO sent a team of experts to Wuhan to investigate the outbreak and communicate with their Chinese counterparts about virus infectivity, severe cases, and the infection source. The WHO experts confirmed human-to-human transmission of the epidemic and infection among medical personnel. 
The WHO praised China’s alacrity in reporting epidemic information and sharing the genetic sequence of the virus, approved the strong and effective measures taken by the Chinese government in a very short time, and praised China’s rapid research and identification of new types of viruses. It also recognized China’s progress in medical research in recent years.
On February 16, the WHO-China Joint Mission on COVID-19 began their field visits in Beijing, Guangdong and Sichuan. The team brought together authorities from a number of institutions around the world in the fields of epidemiology, virology, clinical management, epidemic control and public health. On February 22, the experts went to Wuhan to continue their work. They worked with Chinese epidemiologists to investigate the source of the virus and try to confirm whether the virus had stopped spreading from animals to humans.
病毒检测实验
 快速准确地检测到病毒是防控的关键。2019年12月31日,国家卫生健康委高级别专家组赴武汉开展相关检测核实工作,初步确定此次不明原因病毒性肺炎病例的病原体为新型冠状病毒。
  国家卫健委随即在全国建立“日报告、零报告”制度,同时下发新冠病毒核酸检测试剂盒,要求各地加强检测,全力救治患者,及时发布确诊病例及疫情防控信息。核酸检测是目前诊断新冠病毒肺炎的主要依据。1月22日,国家卫健委明确指出,核酸检测结果阴性不能排除新冠病毒感染,仍需要考虑可能产生假阴性的各种因素。为遏制疫情发展,国家卫健委向全国各省派出工作组,指导做好疫情防控相关工作。与此同时,中国政府主动向世界卫生组织和有关国家及时通报疫情信息和防控工作进展,第一时间与世界卫生组织共享新冠病毒基因序列。
Viral Infection Test
Rapid and accurate detection of a virus is the key to epidemic prevention and control. On December 31, 2019, the High-level Expert Group of the NHC was dispatched to Wuhan; it soon confirmed that the pathogen of this particular viral pneumonia was a novel coronavirus.
The NHC immediately established a daily report mechanism throughout the country, and distributed novel coronavirus nucleic acid testing kits, requiring all localities to reinforce testing, make every effort to treat patients, and update the public without delay about confirmed cases and progress in epidemic prevention and control. At that time, nucleic acid detection was the main tool for diagnosing the novel coronavirus pneumonia. 
On January 22, the NHC announced that negative nucleic acid test results could not rule out novel coronavirus infection, and various factors that may produce false negative results still needed to be considered. 
The NHC also sent work teams to different provinces and equivalent administrative regions to guide epidemic prevention and control efforts. 
Meanwhile, the Chinese government informed the WHO and relevant countries of the situation as it developed and progress in epidemic control, and immediately shared the gene sequence of the novel coronavirus with the WHO.
启动Ⅰ级响应
 根据突发公共卫生事件性质、危害程度、涉及范围,突发公共卫生事件划分为特别重大(Ⅰ级)、重大(Ⅱ级)、较大(Ⅲ级)和一般(Ⅳ级)四级。这次新冠肺炎疫情是新中国成立以来在我国发生的传播速度最快、感染范围最广、防控难度最大的一次突发公共卫生事件。
 疫情就是命令,防控就是责任。自2020年1月23日起,武汉城市公交、地铁、轮渡、长途客运暂停运营,机场、火车站离汉通道暂时关闭。1月24日,湖北省正式启动重大突发公共卫生事件Ⅰ级响应。全国先后共有31个省、市、自治区启动“重大突发公共卫生事件Ⅰ级响应”,全面备战新冠肺炎疫情联防联控工作。在Ⅰ级响应发出后,国家卫生健康委要求各地交通运输、民航、铁路等部门制定应急处理预案;财政部与国家卫健委联合制定疫情防控经费有关保障政策。随着疫情防控工作取得阶段性成效,全国疫情形势出现积极向好的趋势。按照“防控生产两不误”的要求,全国多地根据实际情况适当调整应急响应级别。
First-Level Public Health Emergency Response Activated
According to the nature, severity and scope of impact, public health emergencies are classified into four levels of decreasing severity (I, II, III and IV. The novel coronavirus spread faster and wider in China than any infection since the founding of the People’s Republic in 1949, and was the most difficult to prevent and control. 
“Go where the epidemic is, fight it till it perishes.” On January 23, 2020, Wuhan’s urban bus, subway, ferry and long-distance passenger transportation services were all suspended, and the departure channels of airport and railway stations were also temporarily closed. 
On January 24, Hubei province officially launched the first-level response to major public health emergency. Across China, a total of 31 provinces and equivalent administrative units took similar actions, and made comprehensive preparations for joint prevention and control of the epidemic.
Consequently, the NHC urged transportation, civil aviation, railway and other departments to formulate emergency response plans. It also worked with the Ministry of Finance to devise policies on allocating funds in support of epidemic prevention and control. As phased results were achieved, the overall trend of the epidemic was positive. To ensure progress in both epidemic control and production, many places lowered their emergency response levels in accordance with the local situation.
新冠病毒成功分离
 病毒毒株的分离有助于加快研发快速诊断的试剂,对疫苗研制和药物研发具有重要意义。武汉出现不明原因肺炎病例后,中国政府迅速部署开展病毒分析、检测试剂研发和疫苗研制等工作。
  中国疾控中心在接到标本后,3小时获得实时荧光定量检测阳性的检测结果,24小时获得病毒全长基因组序列,2020年1月4日成功研制出高特异性检测试剂,1月7日晚分别从临床样本和环境样本中成功分离病毒,1月24日全球首发第一株新冠病毒毒株信息。之后,钟南山团队从新冠肺炎患者的粪便及尿液标本中分离出新冠病毒,此举对公共卫生安全防控具有重要警示和指导意义。2月24日,中国—世界卫生组织新冠肺炎联合专家考察组召开新闻发布会,称目前新冠病毒宿主仍未确定,强调新冠病毒是一种新的病原体,各年龄段人群均无免疫力,普遍容易感染。
Successful Isolation of a Novel Coronavirus
The isolation of virus strains helps to speed up the development of rapid diagnostic reagents, which is of great significance in the development of vaccines and drugs. Once the cases of pneumonia of unknown cause had been identified in Wuhan, the Chinese government quickly activated virus analysis, research and development of testing reagents, and vaccine development.
After receiving the samples, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention obtained positive results of real-time fluorescence RPA in 3 hours and determined the full-length genomic sequence of the virus in 24 hours. On January 4, 2020, a high specific detection reagent was successfully developed. On the evening of January 7, a novel coronavirus was successfully isolated from clinical samples and environmental samples, and the information about this novel coronavirus strain was released on January 24. After that, Zhong Nanshan’s team identified novel coronavirus in the feces and urine samples of confirmed patients, which served as an important alert for public health security. 
The WHO-China Joint Mission on COVID-19 held a press conference on February 24, and announced that the host of the novel coronavirus had not yet been determined, that the novel coronavirus was a new pathogen, and that people of all ages had no immunity and were generally susceptible to infection.
病死率
 病死率是指在一定时期内,因患某种疾病死亡的人或动物数量占患病人或动物总数的比例,用于描述某种特定疾病的严重程度。2020年2月4日,国家卫生健康委宣布,截至2月3日晚24时,新冠肺炎全国病死率控制在2.1%,病死率低于SARS(全球病死率近11%),高于甲流(1%~1.5%)。2月24日晚,中国—世界卫生组织新冠肺炎联合专家考察组在新闻发布会上表示,新冠肺炎的轻症、重症、危重三类患者分别在80%、13%和6%左右,全国病死率约在3%~4%之间,除武汉之外,全国病死率为0.7%;截至2月20日,新冠肺炎确诊病例平均年龄为51岁,80%的病例年龄在30岁至69岁之间,78%的病例来自于湖北。
 随着中医药、磷酸氯喹、恢复期血浆治疗纳入诊疗方案,法匹拉韦、瑞德西韦等药物进入临床试验阶段,新冠肺炎治疗不断取得多项进展。科技部副部长徐南平表示,目前正在多路线部署疫苗研发,部分已进入动物试验阶段,最快将于4月下旬申报临床试验。
Case Fatality Rate
The case fatality rate is the proportion of people or animals who die from a disease in relation to the total number of patients or animals suffering the disease within a certain period of time. It is used to describe the severity of a particular disease. 
On February 4, the NHC announced that by 24:00 of February 3, the case fatality rate of COVID-19 in China had been controlled at 2.1%, which was lower than that of SARS (whose global case fatality rate was 11%) and higher than that of H1N1 (1%-1.5%).
On the evening of February 24, the WHO-China Joint Mission on COVID-19 announced at its news conference that approximately 80% of laboratory confirmed patients had mild to moderate symptoms, 13.8% had severe symptoms, and 6.1% were critical; the case fatality rate in China was 3% to 4%, (0.7% outside Wuhan); as of February 20, the median age of confirmed cases was 51, with 80% of cases aged between 30-69 years, and 78% were from Hubei.
With traditional Chinese medicine, chloroquine phosphate, and convalescent plasma therapy adopted into the diagnosis and treatment guidelines, and with Favipiravir, Remdesivir and other drugs heading into the phase of clinical research, sustainable progress was made in the treatment of COVID-19. Xu Nanping, vice minister of science and technology, said that the vaccine was currently being developed through multiple approaches, some of which had entered animal testing phases and would be submitted for clinical trials as early as late April.
“三个首次”
2020年2月18日,国家卫生健康委发布报告称,2月17日全国单日新增确诊病例首次降至2000例以内,湖北省外单日新增确诊病例首次降至100例以内,全国单日新增死亡病例首次降至100例以内,实现了“三个首次”,疫情形势出现向好变化。 随着全国各地防控措施逐步落实,疫情防控效果凸显。2月18日,全国新增治愈出院人数超过新增确诊人数,首次实现“出大于入”。同时,全国除湖北以外地区新增确诊病例数连续15日下降,较高点降幅达94%。据国家卫生健康委统计,2月24日,全国23个省份及新疆生产建设兵团实现零新增确诊病例。但“零增长”绝不意味着疫情“零风险”。在全国疫情拐点尚未到来的攻坚阶段,容不得一丝松懈,需要继续巩固防控成果,抓好重症病例的救治工作,最大程度防范轻症转重症,提高治愈率。
Three “Firsts”
On February 18, the NHC released a report announcing three “Firsts”: On February 17, the number of newly confirmed cases across the country dropped to below 2,000 in a single day for the first time. The number of newly confirmed cases outside Hubei province dropped to below 100 in a single day for the first time. And the number of new deaths in the whole country dropped to below 100 in a single day for the first time. These indicated that the whole situation was improving.
On February 18, the number of newly cured and discharged patients across the country exceeded that of newly confirmed cases, marking a fourth “first”. The number of newly confirmed cases in areas other than Hubei had been falling for 15 days in a row, with a staggering 94% drop from the peak.
According to the NHC, there were no new cases in 23 provinces and equivalent administrative units on February 24. Nevertheless, “zero increase” does not mean “zero risk”. At this critical stage when the national epidemic inflection point had not yet arrived, there was no room for complacency. The whole country needed to consolidate the progress, ensure effective treatment of severe cases, exert every effort to prevent deterioration from mild to severe cases, and improve the recovery rate.
《中国—世界卫生组织新型冠状病毒肺炎联合考察报告》
 为了迅速就中国及国际社会如何进一步应对新冠肺炎疫情提供信息,并为尚未受疫情影响的国家和地区如何做好应对准备提出意见,来自8个国家和世卫组织的25名中外专家,在中国进行了为期9天的调研,形成《中国—世界卫生组织新型冠状病毒肺炎联合考察报告》。报告于2020年2月29日由中国国家卫生健康委正式发布。
 报告主要包括考察组、主要发现、评估和主要建议等四个方面内容。报告指出,新冠肺炎病毒是一种动物源性病毒,在无防护下通过飞沫和密切接触传播,人群普遍缺乏免疫力。报告高度评价中国在疫情防控方面所做的工作,充分肯定中国政府采取的历史上最勇敢、最灵活、最积极的防控措施,认为这些措施有效遏制了病原体的迅速蔓延,改变了疫情快速扩散流行的危险进程,为全球应对新冠肺炎提供了重要经验。报告建议,尚未受疫情影响的国家应做好随时启动最高级别应急响应机制的准备,加强对新冠肺炎的检测,采取更加严格的防控措施等。报告强调,国际社会应充分认识到各国之间真正的团结与合作对于解决新冠肺炎的共同威胁至关重要。
Report of the WHO-China Joint Mission on COVID-19
To provide timely information on how China and the international community should further respond to the COVID-19 epidemic, and to offer proposals on how countries and regions that have not yet been affected by the epidemic should prepare, 25 Chinese along with foreign experts from eight countries and the WHO conducted a nine-day mission in China . They finished the Report of the WHO-China Joint Mission on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), which was officially released by the NHC on February 29.
The report consisted of four parts: the joint mission itself, major findings, assessments, and major recommendations. It pointed out that COVID-19 was a zoonotic virus that was transmitted via droplets and fomites during close unprotected contact between an infector and infectee, and there was no known pre-existing immunity in humans. 
The report spoke highly of China’s efforts in epidemic prevention and control, and affirmed that China had rolled out perhaps the most ambitious, agile and aggressive disease containment effort in history. It held that China’s bold approach contained the rapid spread of the pathogen, changed the course of a rapidly escalating and deadly epidemic, and provided vital lessons for the global response. 
The report recommended that countries that had not yet been affected should immediately prepare to activate the highest level of emergency response mechanisms, implement enhanced surveillance for COVID-19, and enforce rigorous application of infection prevention and control measures. The report also stressed that the international community should recognize that true solidarity and collaboration is essential between nations to tackle the common threat that COVID-19 represents.
International Aid
国际援助
国际社会积极合作与援助
 习近平在2月23日召开的统筹推进新冠肺炎疫情防控和经济社会发展工作部署会议上强调,公共卫生安全是人类面临的共同挑战,需要各国携手应对。
  新冠肺炎疫情发生后,习近平、李克强分别会见了世界卫生组织总干事谭德塞和来华访问的柬埔寨首相洪森、蒙古国总统巴特图勒嘎,以通电话的形式与沙特国王萨勒曼、美国总统特朗普、德国总理默克尔、卡塔尔埃米尔塔米姆、印尼总统佐科、马来西亚总理马哈蒂尔、英国首相约翰逊、法国总统马克龙、韩国总统文在寅、巴基斯坦总理伊姆兰·汗通、埃塞俄比亚总理阿比通、阿联酋阿布扎比王储穆罕默德、古巴国家主席迪亚斯·卡内尔、智利总统皮涅拉等多国领导人保持密切沟通,赞赏外方支持援助,介绍中国防控情况,传递中国发展信心,并就加强国际合作、推动双边关系发展进行交流。截至2月底,全球共有170多个国家领导人和40多个国际和地区组织负责人专门发函或致电中国,表达慰问支持;各国政要纷纷公开发声,为武汉加油、为中国加油;多个国家和国际组织积极捐款捐物、提供实际帮助。国际社会向中国给予了宝贵的精神支持和物质援助,各国人民同中国人民的友情在共同抗疫中得到了升华。
  与此同时,国际社会还对中国抗疫举措表示高度赞赏,普遍认为中国采取了坚决有力的防控措施,展现出出色的领导能力、应对能力、组织动员能力、贯彻执行能力,为世界防疫树立了典范。中国在全面有力防控疫情的同时,也积极主动同世卫组织和国际社会开展合作、交流信息,特别是迅速分享部分毒株全基因组序列,研制成功快速检测试剂盒等举措,不仅是在对中国人民生命安全和身体健康负责,也是在为世界公共卫生事业作贡献。
  要战胜关乎各国人民安危的疫病,团结合作是最有力的武器。面对疫情发展,加强全球治理,增进国际协调是当务之急。只有各国都担负起道义和责任,才能在全球范围夺取抗疫斗争的最终胜利。
Cooperation with and Aid from 
the International Community
At the meeting on February 23 to coordinate epidemic prevention and control and economic and social development, Xi Jinping noted that public health security is a common challenge that faces all of humanity, and all countries need to join hands to deal with it.
After the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic, Xi Jinping met with visiting WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, Cambodian Prime Minister Hun Sen, and Mongolian President Khaltmaa Battulga. He also communicated on the phone with the leaders of France, Germany, Saudi Arabia, the United States, Indonesia, Qatar, Malaysia, the United Kingdom, the Republic of Korea, Pakistan, the United Arab Emirates, Ethiopia, Chile and Cuba. Xi expressed appreciation for their support and aid, explained the progress China had made in combating the virus, expressed his confidence in future developments, and exchanged views with these leaders on promoting international cooperation and advancing bilateral ties.
By the end of February, more than 170 state leaders and over 40 heads of international and regional organizations had sent written or oral messages, or issued statements to express sympathy and support for China. International organizations including the United Nations, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the BRICS, ASEAN, the AU, the League of Arab States, the Latin American Community, and the Group of 77 had expressed their confidence in and support for China’s action against the virus. Many influential politicians around the world had publicly voiced encouragement and support to Wuhan and China, while more than 50 countries and international organizations had made donations and provided solid assistance. 
The international community gave China valuable spiritual support and material assistance, building a broad consensus on facing difficulties and fighting epidemic together. And friendship between foreign peoples and the Chinese was strengthened in the battle against COVID-19.
During the battle against the epidemic, China won universal recognition and praise for its rapid and decisive actions. It fulfilled its commitment to building a global community of shared future, performed like a responsible major country, and made a significant contribution to global public health. The international community has widely recognized China’s determined and effective prevention and control measures and been impressed by its extraordinary abilities in leading and mobilizing the Chinese people to respond to the outbreak, which has set a good example for handling the global epidemic. Its experience in dealing with infectious disease and promoting global governance of public health provides an important reference for the international community. 
While fighting the epidemic, China has actively and voluntarily cooperated with and shared information with the WHO and the international community, swiftly shared the genome sequence of some strains, and successfully developed rapid-testing kits. These moves indicate that China takes responsibility for the life and health of Chinese people, and also provides major benefits to global epidemic prevention and control. UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres said that China has made great sacrifices in the fight to control the epidemic and prevent the virus from spreading to others, and has made a great contribution to humanity. Some authoritative professional international journals point out that China has paved the way for the international scientific community to join the fight against epidemic and laid the foundations for global cooperation in scientific research.  
To prevail over a disease that threatens all, unity and cooperation is the most powerful weapon. In the face of the epidemic, improving global governance on major infectious diseases and promoting international ordination is the high priority. Only when every country assumes its moral responsibility can we finally win victory in the global battle against the epidemic.
世界卫生组织大力支持和帮助
 新冠肺炎疫情发生以来,世界卫生组织高度关注,不仅对中国疫情防控工作给予理解、支持和肯定,还积极同中国展开合作,全力帮助抗击疫情。
 2020年1月28日,世界卫生组织总干事谭德塞访问中国,考察新冠肺炎疫情。2月10日,由加拿大流行病学专家和应急专家布鲁斯·艾尔沃德博士率领的世卫组织国际专家组首批成员抵达中国,与中国同行一起并肩工作。他们前往北京市、广东省、四川省和武汉市,实地调研新冠肺炎疫情,学习中国防控工作经验,巩固深化互信合作。在完成中国考察后,布鲁斯·艾尔沃德博士于当地时间2月25日在日内瓦召开的新闻发布会上表示,中国医疗工作者和相关机构的努力改变了疫情爆发的进程,由于这种积极反应,让成千上万的中国人避免了感染新型冠状病毒肺炎;世界需要学习中国的经验,要认识到武汉人民所做出的贡献,世界亏欠他们,当这场疫情过去的时候,希望有机会能代表世界再一次感谢武汉人民。
  针对疫情期间一些别有用心的假消息、污名化言行,世卫组织坚持以科学和事实为依据作出判断,努力沟通协调主流信息渠道,积极澄清真相,呼吁各方坚持真理、抵制谣言、保持信心、加强合作,确保民众得到权威信息。据世卫组织部分合作专家提供的数据模型显示,中国采取的控制人员流动的措施让中国境内的疫情传播速度延缓了两到三天,而让中国境外的疫情传播速度延缓了两到三周。世卫组织积极评价并充分肯定中国抗击疫情的努力,总干事谭德塞表示,中方行动之快、规模之大,世所罕见;这是中国制度的优势,有关经验值得其他国家借鉴;中国所采取的大规模防控行动为世界争取了时间,让世界更加安全。此外,包括谭德塞、艾尔沃德在内的世卫组织官员和专家还多次表达了对中国医护人员的肯定、敬意和感谢。
Strong WHO Support and Assistance
Since the onset of the COVID-19 epidemic, the WHO has been closely concerned. It has given understanding, support, affirmation and cooperation to China in the battle.
WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus visited China on January 28 to investigate the COVID-19 epidemic. An advance team of WHO international experts led by Canadian epidemiologist and emergency expert Dr. Bruce Aylward arrived in China on February 10 to work with their Chinese counterparts.
On February 16, the WHO-China Joint Mission on COVID-19 began its work by visiting Beijing and the provinces of Guangdong, Sichuan and Hubei. After conducting field investigations on the epidemic and treatment, and learning of Chinese experience in epidemic prevention and control, they carried out technical exchanges and extended mutual trust and cooperation. 
At the press conference held by the team in Beijing on February 24, Dr. Bruce Aylward noted that China’s unprecedented public health response had yielded notable results in controlling human-to-human transmission of the virus, and averted and probably prevented tens of thousands, and perhaps even hundreds of thousands of cases. China had taken prudent, phased and orderly steps to gradually restore social and economic order and maintain the education and healthcare sectors, and other countries should swiftly reassess the measures taken toward China. He also said the world needed to learn from China’s experience and recognize what the people of Wuhan had achieved, and that the world was in their debt. Once the disease was overcome, he said, he hoped he would have the chance to thank the people of Wuhan on behalf of the world again. 
In response to the fake news and stigmatization emerging during the epidemic, the WHO made judgements based on science and evidence, tried to communicate with and coordinate mainstream information channels, actively clarified the actual situation, constantly called for all parties to stick to the truth, snuff out rumors, maintain confidence, and strengthen cooperation, and ensured the public have access to authoritative information. 
 Statistics models provided by WHO experts showed that China’s restrictions on movement delayed the spread of the outbreak for two or three days within China and two or three weeks outside China. The WHO has spoken positively of China’s efforts to contain the novel coronavirus and given its full affirmation. Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus said the speed and the massive scale of China’s response was unprecedented, and showed the strength of China’s system. He called for other countries to emulate China’s approach. China’s large-scale prevention and control action bought time for the world and made it safer. Moreover, WHO officials and experts including Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus and Bruce Aylward expressed their commendation, respect and appreciation to China’s medical professionals on several occasions.
普京:第一时间表示愿意援助中国
 新冠肺炎疫情发生后,俄罗斯总统普京第一时间向习近平发来慰问电,表示俄罗斯全力支持中方抗击疫情,愿提供必要的医疗物资援助,派遣防疫专家代表团赴华,开展联合研制疫苗和抗疫药物等合作。普京还在不同场合多次公开表示对中国的坚定支持。2月5日,俄罗斯派遣医疗防疫专家团抵达武汉,这是首个来华开展疫情防治合作的外国专家团。2月9日,俄罗斯援助的超23吨医疗物资由专机运抵武汉,其中有包括超过200万只口罩在内的大量医用防护用品。俄罗斯外交部发言人扎哈罗娃在新闻发布会上专门用中文声援中国抗击疫情:“在这个艰难的时刻,俄罗斯与中国同在,俄罗斯对中国人民表示诚挚支持,并祝愿中国人民取得最终胜利”。
  俄罗斯多次捐助医疗物资,派遣防疫专家代表团来华,各界民众自发录制视频为中国加油,都充分体现了中俄新时代全面战略协作伙伴关系的高水平和两国患难与共、守望相助的深厚情谊。中俄以最快的速度合作抵御共同威胁,显示出两国秉持人类命运共同体理念,深度参与全球公共卫生治理,携手为世界公共卫生事业贡献力量的大国担当。
Vladimir Putin: 
The Will to Provide Immediate Help
After the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic, Russian President Vladimir Putin immediately sent a message of sympathy to Xi Jinping, saying that Russia fully supported China in fighting the epidemic, and was willing to provide any material medical assistance required. Under his command, Russia sent a delegation of epidemic prevention experts to China to cooperate in the development of vaccines and anti-epidemic drugs. Putin also publicly expressed his firm support for China on many occasions. 
On February 5, a Russian team of medical and epidemic prevention experts arrived in Wuhan. They were the first foreign expert team to arrive in China. On February 9, more than 23 tons of medical supplies from Russia arrived in Wuhan by a cargo aircraft, including more than 2 million facemasks and a large quantity of medical protective equipment. 
At a news conference, Russian Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Maria Zakharova expressed her solidarity with China in fighting the epidemic, in Chinese. “Russia stands with China during this difficult time. We are also sending our sincere support to the people of China and wish them success in their fight,” she said.
Russia has made several donations of medical supplies, and sent delegations of epidemic prevention experts to China, and Russian people from all walks of life have recorded spontaneous videos in support of China. All of this fully reflects the depth of the China-Russia comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination in the new era, as well as the profound friendship between two countries who help each other at difficult times.
China and Russia cooperate rapidly to resist common threats, which shows that the two countries uphold the concept of a global community of shared future, participate in global public health governance, and have shouldered the responsibility of major countries by joining forces to contribute to public health throughout the world.
盖茨夫妇:用慈善拯救世界
 1月27日,由比尔·盖茨及其夫人梅琳达共同成立的盖茨基金会,宣布提供500万美元紧急赠款,支持中国抗击疫情。随后,又承诺投入最高1亿美元赠款,用于支持世界卫生组织、中国相关机构以及其他国际和国家层面的相关机构,共同应对新冠病毒疫情,其中一部分用于直接帮助中国加快在药物、疫苗及诊断方法研发等方面的工作。比尔·盖茨专门致信习近平主席,赞赏中国政府和人民在抗击疫情中的表现,表示将坚定支持中国打赢抗疫阻击战。
  习近平在2月20日给比尔·盖茨的回信中,感谢他和盖茨基金会对中国防控新冠肺炎疫情工作的支持,呼吁国际社会加强协调、共同抗击疫情。信中指出,人类是一个命运共同体,战胜关乎各国人民安危的疫病,团结合作是最有力的武器;盖茨基金会很早就加入全球抗击新冠肺炎疫情的行动,发挥了积极作用;支持盖茨基金会同中方有关机构的合作,也期待国际社会加强协调,为维护人类健康福祉一起努力。
Bill and Melinda Gates: 
Saving the World with Charity
On January 27, the Gates Foundation, co-founded by Bill Gates and his wife Melinda, committed $5 million in emergency funds to support China’s fight against the epidemic. Subsequently, the Foundation committed up to $100 million for the global response to the novel coronavirus. The donation will be used to assist the WHO, Chinese frontline responders and others at global and national level – part of it will be directed to help China accelerate the development of vaccines, drugs and diagnostics.
Bill Gates sent a special letter to President Xi, praising the performance of the Chinese government and people in fighting the virus, and expressing his firm support for China.
In his reply to Bill Gates on February 20, Xi Jinping thanked him and the Gates Foundation for their support, and called for enhanced coordination and concerted efforts in the international community to combat the epidemic. Xi also noted that humanity is a global community of shared future, and unity and cooperation are the most powerful weapons to prevail over a disease that threatens all. He recognized that the Foundation had been quick to join the global action and had played an active role in the global response to the outbreak. He offered his support for the Gates Foundation’s cooperation with Chinese institutions, and looked forward to enhanced coordination and concerted efforts in the international community for the sake of the health and wellbeing of all.
日本:山川异域,风月同天
 国际社会对中国抗击新冠肺炎疫情给予了极大的理解和支持,日本作为一衣带水、守望相助的友好邻邦,第一时间以官民一体、文道合一的物资援助和舆论支持,为中国政府和人民带来了鼓励与温情。
 1月29日,日本汉语教学考试机构HSK事务局在捐赠湖北的物资贴纸上,写下“山川异域,风月同天”的诗意留言,寓意中日两国虽然山川各异,然而却能同沐清风、共赏明月。日本前首相鸠山由纪夫在为武汉加油的视频中,也提到了这句话。诗意的留言拉近并温暖了两国民众的心,唤起了中日文化交流源远流长的美好记忆。“山川异域,风月同天”的作者是一千多年前日本政界的重量级人物长屋亲王。其执政时,日本频繁派出遣唐使来中国学习佛法与先进文化。长屋亲王命人制作千件绣着“山川异域,风月同天;寄诸佛子,共结来缘”偈语的袈裟,随遣唐使带给中国的高僧。鉴真大师为偈语所感动,不畏艰险前往日本弘扬佛法,为中日友好交流播下了种子。
“投我以木桃,报之以琼瑶”。2月中下旬,随着日本新冠肺炎确诊病例持续增加,中国无偿提供新冠病毒核酸检测试剂,进一步同日方分享信息经验,体现了两国命运与共、密切协作,维护地区和世界公共卫生安全的积极姿态。
Japan: Miles Apart, but Close at Heart
The international community provided great understanding and support to China in its fight against the COVID-19 epidemic. Japan and China are neighbors who always offer mutual assistance in times of hardship. The Japanese government and the Japanese people took immediate action to provide material aid and voice their support, bringing encouragement and warmth to the Chinese government and the Chinese people.
“Miles apart, but close at heart.” This was a two-line poem written in Chinese by the Japanese HSK Bureau on the boxes of supplies it donated to China in its fight against the novel coronavirus. As the poem suggests, while broad expanses of water separate China and Japan, the two countries enjoy the same moonlight under the same sky. Also quoted by former Japanese Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama in a video message sent to show his support to Wuhan, the poem brought the people of the two countries closer, and created a significant moment in the history of cultural exchanges between China and Japan. 
The poem was composed by Prince Nagaya of Japan more than 1,000 years ago. During his reign, Japan often sent ambassadors to China to study Buddhism and Chinese culture. The hymn was embroidered on 1,000 Buddhist robes that Prince Nagaya sent to Chinese monks. Moved by the Prince’s hymn, Jianzhen (688-763), the renowned Buddhist master and traveler of the Tang Dynasty (618-907), decided to face the hardship of a voyage to Japan, promoting friendly exchanges between the two countries. 
An old Chinese saying goes, “You toss me a peach, I give you a white jade in return.” In mid-to-late February, as the number of confirmed patients increased in Japan, China donated a batch of COVID-19 nucleic acid testing kits to Japan and strengthened information sharing. These benign interactions demonstrate that the destiny of the two countries is inextricably linked, and they can cooperate to protect regional and international public health.
韩国:向12城市捐赠物资
2月11日,韩国首尔市政府向北京、重庆等12座城市提供1000套医用防护服、500个护目镜、90个医用防护面罩、30台便携式热成像摄像机等6亿韩元(约合人民币353万元)规模的援助物资,并表示还将视情提供民用口罩等物资,助力中国抗击新冠肺炎疫情。首尔市市长朴元淳专门录制支持视频,感谢北京市在首尔深陷中东呼吸综合征(MERS)疫情之际派遣特使团给予帮助,希望中国能够早日战胜当前困难,期待首尔市与中国友好城市在困境中相濡以沫,不断加深友谊。2月15日起,首尔市政府在市政厅广场等公共建筑、光化门等数个人流密集的地铁站,以及首尔市70多个有关机构的电梯内,滚动播放支持中国抗击新冠肺炎疫情的短视频。在民间,韩国外国语大学挂出“武汉加油、中国加油”的横幅,成均馆大学成均中国研究所捐赠300万韩元,并发出慰问信。据初步统计,韩国政府和民间捐款捐物已超过1.5亿元人民币。韩国总统文在寅表示,韩中互为友好邻邦,中国的困难就是我们的困难,韩国将不遗余力地提供支援和配合,与中国携手战“疫”、共克时艰,推动两国关系进一步发展。
  中韩两国面对困难相互支持、相互帮助,反映了两国之间共同共通的文化底蕴、守望相助的友好传统,显示出携手构建人类命运共同体的邻里情、朋友义。
The ROK: Donating Goods 
to 12 Chinese Cities
On February 11, the Seoul Metropolitan Government of the Republic of Korea (ROK) donated 1,000 medical protective suits, 500 pairs of goggles, 90 medical masks, 30 portable thermal imaging cameras and other materials, to a total value of 600 million won (about 3.53 million yuan), to 12 cities including Beijing and Chongqing. It also said that it would continue to provide masks for civilian use and other materials as required to help China fight the epidemic. 
In a video message, Mayor of Seoul Park Won-soon expressed his thanks to Beijing for sending a special mission to help Seoul when the city was afflicted by the MERS epidemic. He hoped China would overcome its current difficulties as quickly as possible, and looked forward to Seoul and its Chinese sister cities helping each other in the predicament and expanding their friendship. 
On February 15, the Seoul Metropolitan Government began broadcasting short videos supporting China’s fight against the COVID-19 epidemic in public buildings such as the City Hall, Gwanghwamun and several other subway stations, and elevators in more than 70 institutions. The civilians of Seoul also showed their support. Hankuk University of Foreign Studies put up a banner saying “Stay strong Wuhan, stay strong China.” Sungkyun Institute of China Studies of Sungkyunkwan University donated 3 million won (about 18,000 yuan) and sent a letter of sympathy. 
According to early statistics, the ROK government and private donations exceeded 150 million yuan. President Moon Jae-in said that the ROK and China are friendly neighbors, and his country would take China’s difficulties as their own. It would spare no effort in assisting and coordinating with China to fight the epidemic, and promote further development of bilateral relations. 
The mutual support and assistance between China and the ROK reflects the two countries’ common cultural background and friendly traditions, and shows the neighborly affection and solid friendship that enables the two countries to work together to build a global community of shared future.
伊朗:第一个就疫情爆发向中国
给予慰问的国家
新冠肺炎疫情发生时,中国收到的第一份慰问来自伊朗——扎里夫外长是全球第一个公开声援中国的外长,并且他还多次用中文在社交媒体上发文表达对中国抗击疫情的支持。从政府到民间,伊朗各界纷纷表达对中国抗疫的支持:伊朗文旅部举办“为中国加油”万人签名活动;德黑兰自由塔举行支持中国灯光秀活动;许多伊朗官员和友好人士公开发声,表示坚定同中国人民站在一起,并向中国提供医疗物资援助;伊朗红新月会援助100万只口罩送往北京;一位在华伊朗咖啡师主动放弃乘包机回国的机会,与中国同事一起为抗疫一线医护人员免费制作、配送咖啡。
  进入2月下旬,伊朗新冠肺炎疫情严峻。中国驻伊大使馆和在伊中资企业向伊方紧急捐赠了25万只口罩和5000人份新冠病毒核酸检测试剂盒;中国红十字会派出志愿专家团队一行5人,携带部分中方援助的医疗物资支援伊朗。中方表示,将根据伊方需要,在疫情防控、医疗救治等方面开展合作,并继续提供力所能及的帮助。
  正如那句古老的波斯谚语所言,“人心之间,有路相通”。中伊两国是全面战略伙伴,总是在彼此困难的时候相互支持帮助,坚定地站在一起。两国在共同抗击疫情过程中,以实际行动诠释了患难与共、同舟共济的内涵,展现了两国人民的深厚情谊。
Iran: The First Country to Offer Sympathy to China on the Outbreak of the Epidemic
After the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic, the first expressions of sympathy that China received came from Iran. The country’s Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif was the first foreign minister in the world to publicly support China, and he repeatedly posted on social media to express, in Chinese, his support for China’s fight against the epidemic. 
From the government to the people, all walks of life in Iran expressed their support for China. The Iranian Ministry of Culture and Tourism held a signature campaign. The Azadi Tower held a special lighting show. Many officials and friendly Iranians made public statements that they stood side by side with the Chinese people and offered medical materials. The Iranian Red Crescent Society donated 1 million facemasks to Beijing. An Iranian barista working in China voluntarily gave up the opportunity to return home by charter flight, and worked with his Chinese colleagues to make and dispatch free coffee to frontline medical workers in Wuhan.
In late February, the epidemic in Iran became serious. The Chinese Embassy in Iran and China-invested enterprises in the country urgently donated 250,000 masks and 5,000 novel coronavirus nucleic acid testing kits. The Red Cross Society of China sent a team of five volunteer experts along with Chinese-assisted medical supplies to Iran. The Chinese side said that it would carry out joint work in epidemic prevention and control, medical treatment and other areas as needed by the Iranian side, and would continue to provide assistance within its capabilities.
An old Persian proverb goes, “There is a road between the hearts of people.” China and Iran are comprehensive strategic partners who always support and help each other in times of difficulty and stand firmly together. In the process of jointly fighting the epidemic, China and Iran have acted as responsible partners who work side by side to tide over a difficult period, and demonstrated the profound friendship between the people of the two countries.
巴基斯坦:巴铁信任值千金
 中国和巴基斯坦是全天候战略合作伙伴,素有互帮互助的优良传统。新冠肺炎疫情发生后,巴基斯坦第一时间发声向中方表达支持,克服困难提供宝贵物资捐助,保持两国一切正常往来,以实际行动给予中国信任和支持。2月10日,巴基斯坦国民议会和参议院分别通过决议,对中国抗击新冠病毒肺炎疫情表示支持。决议感谢中国政府为抗击疫情、保护巴基斯坦在华学生采取的措施,表示愿同中国展开全面合作。2月21日,巴基斯坦总理伊姆兰·汗专门致电习近平主席,表达慰问和支持,同时表示,由于中方的有效防控,疫情并未在世界蔓延,整个世界都应感谢并赞赏中方应对疫情的努力和成效,没有任何国家可以比中国做得更好。习近平强调,中巴两国是患难与共的真朋友、同甘共苦的好兄弟,中国将像对待本国公民一样,照顾好在华巴基斯坦兄弟姐妹。
据悉,巴基斯坦先后两次动用全国医院库存资源,向中国捐赠医用口罩、防护服、手套等医疗物资,巴基斯坦籍留学生、客商等也纷纷捐款捐物,支援中国人民抗击疫情,展示出中巴两国人民患难与共的真情,证明了中巴是同舟共济、守望相助的命运共同体。
The Trust of “Iron Pak” 
Is Worth More Than Gold.
China and Pakistan are all-whether strategic cooperative partners who enjoy a tradition of mutual assistance. After the outbreak of the epidemic, Pakistan immediately voiced solidarity with China, offering donations and assistance despite its own difficulties, and maintaining all bilateral regular exchanges. It made solid moves to show trust and support to China.
On February 10, the Pakistani Parliament and Senate separately passed resolutions to support China in its fight against the epidemic. The resolutions extended appreciation to the Chinese government for protecting Pakistani students studying in China during the epidemic, and expressed willingness to fully cooperate with China. 
On February 21, Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan called Chinese President Xi Jinping to express sympathy and support. Because of China’s effective prevention and control efforts, the virus had not spread around the world, he said, adding that the whole world should commend and appreciate China’s efforts and achievements in containing the virus, and no country could have done better than China. Xi emphasized that China and Pakistan are true friends and good brothers who share weal and woe, and China would take good care of Pakistani brothers and sisters in China in the same way as its own citizens.
According to media reports, Pakistan tapped into its national hospital reserves to donate medical materials, including medical masks, protective suits, and gloves to China. Pakistani students and merchants in China also donated money and goods to support China’s fight against the epidemic. All these acts of kindness show the two countries’ true brotherhood and prove that China and Pakistan, as members of a community of shared future, always stand together and help each other in difficult and exceptional times.
蒙古:3万只羊送前线
 2月27日,习近平主席在人民大会堂同蒙古国总统哈勒特马·巴特图勒嘎会谈。习近平指出,总统先生作为疫情发生后首位访华的外国元首,专程来中国表达慰问和支持,充分体现了总统先生和蒙方对中蒙关系的高度重视和对中国人民的深厚情谊,是中蒙两个邻国守望相助、同舟共济的生动诠释。会谈结束后,巴特图勒嘎向习近平递交了蒙方向中方赠送3万只羊的证书。
 中蒙是山水相连的友好邻邦,也是全面战略伙伴。新冠肺炎疫情发生后,蒙古国政府在第一时间向中国提供了约140万元人民币的资金支持,这是该国近年来最大的一笔对外现金援助。蒙古国首都乌兰巴托市政府,也提供了约40万元人民币的捐助。蒙方发起“永久邻邦、暖心支持”行动,号召全体公务员和社会各界人士为支持中方抗击疫情募捐,得到了蒙古国社会各界的积极响应,有许多人自愿捐出工资,希望帮助中国人民战胜困难。3月2日,蒙古国红十字会向中国捐赠2万只口罩,从二连口岸公路运送入境。 
 草原上有句古老的谚语:灾荒之年能给你送肉吃的不一定是富人,但肯定是安达(朋友)!蒙方在此前已向中方提供捐款的基础上,再次向中方赠送3万只羊,这份蒙古国人民的心意令人备受感动。
Mongolia: 30,000 Sheep to China
On February 27, President Xi Jinping held talks with Mongolian President Khaltmaagiin Battulga at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing. Xi pointed out that as the first head of state to visit China after the COVID-19 outbreak, the Mongolian President had made a special trip to China to express his sympathy and support, which fully reflects the great importance that the president himself and the Mongolian government attach to Sino-Mongolian relations as well as their profound friendship toward the Chinese people. Xi described it as a vivid interpretation of the two neighboring countries’ help for each other in difficulties and will to work together as responsible partners. After their talks, Battulga presented to Xi Jinping a certificate attesting to Mongolia’s gift of 30,000 sheep.
China and Mongolia are friendly neighbors linked by mountains and rivers, as well as comprehensive strategic partners. After the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic, the Mongolian government immediately donated about 1.4 million yuan to China, which was the country’s largest foreign aid donation in recent years. The Municipal Government of Ulaanbaatar City, capital of Mongolia, also provided a donation of about 400,000 yuan. 
Mongolia launched a campaign titled “permanent neighbor and warm support,” and called for all civil servants and people from all walks of life to raise money to support China in the fight against the epidemic. The campaign received a positive response in Mongolia and many people donated their wages to help the Chinese people overcome their difficulties. On March 2, the Mongolian Red Cross Society donated another 20,000 facemasks to China.
As an old proverb on the prairie goes, “It is not necessarily the rich who give you meat in the year of famine, but it must be a friend!” In addition to previous donations, the Mongolian people impressed the Chinese people with their good wishes and the 30,000 sheep.
Jointly presented by 
Academy of Contemporary China and World Studies China Report Press 

总策划:陈实、于运全 
Producer: CHEN Shi, YU Yunquan 
出版人:杨平、尹杰 
Publisher: YANG Ping, YIN Jie 
主编:范大祺、董彦 
Editor-in-chief: FAN Daqi, DONG Yan 
责编:申阳、杨怡、陈珂 
Editor: SHEN Yang, YANG Yi, CHEN Ke 
设计总监:陈强 
Art Director: CHEN Qiang 
图片编辑:刘嵘 
Photo Director: LIU Rong 
美术编辑:韦万里 
Art Editor: WEI Wanli
 

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