(下册)
抗击新冠肺炎疫情篇
The Fight Against COVID-19
Part 2
An authoritative guide to understanding contemporary China
权威解读当代中国
中国外文出版发行事业局(CIPG) 
当代中国与世界研究院(ACCWS) 
中国翻译研究院(CATL) 

新冠肺炎疫情发生以来,不仅中国人民的生命安全和身体健康面临重大威胁,全球公共卫生安全也面临重大挑战。面对严峻考验,习近平主席高度重视、亲自指挥、亲自部署,中国人民团结奋战、同舟共济,用中国力量、中国精神、中国效率赢得了世界的普遍认同与赞赏,为全球公共卫生事业作出了重要贡献,生动践行了构建人类命运共同体的价值理念。 
为了帮助国际社会全面、客观、生动地了解中国人民抗疫斗争历程,为全球公共卫生治理提供参考借鉴,当代中国与世界研究院联合中国报道社策划推出《中国关键词:抗击新冠肺炎疫情篇》多语种电子刊特辑,从中央决策、政策部署、专有词汇、国际援助、具体措施、人物案例、战“疫”微镜头和防控知识八个方面,解读中国打赢疫情防控阻击战、携手应对全球挑战的担当与行动。 
本专题电子刊分上下两册,共选取80个关键词进行阐释和解读,译为英、法、西、日、韩五个语种对外发布。
前言
The COVID-19 epidemic poses a critical threat to public life, safety and health, not only in China but throughout the world. Facing this severe test, Chinese President Xi Jinping has placed great importance on epidemic prevention and control and personally led the Chinese people in the battle against the coronavirus with solidarity and courage. China has won universal recognition and appreciation throughout the world for the strength, spirit, and efficiency of its response. It has made an important contribution to global public health security and provided a clear example of the concept of building a global community of shared future.
To help the international community better understand how the Chinese people have fought against the epidemic, and provide references for global public health governance, the Academy of Contemporary China and World Studies and China Report Magazine have compiled this multilingual electronic document entitled Keywords to Understand China: The Fight Against COVID-19. It comprises eight sections: decisions by the central leadership, anti-epidemic guidelines and arrangements, special terminology, international aid, effective measures, brave fighters, the importance of unity, and information on COVID-19 prevention and control. Its goal is to explain in comprehensive, objective, and vivid terms how China is fighting the war of epidemic prevention and control and working together with other countries to deal with this global challenge.
Divided into two parts, this document contains about 80 terms and expressions and is available in English, French, Japanese, Korean and Spanish.
Introduction
The Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council    15

 
The Scientific Research and Innovation Team Under the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State
Council​    17
 

Early Detection, Early Reporting, Early Isolation and Early Treatment    19


Wuhan in Lockdown    21


Admitting All Suspected and Confirmed Cases for Treatment    23


Mass Dragnet Screening of Potential Virus Carriers     25

国务院联防联控工作机制    14



成立国务院联防联控工作机制科研攻关组    16
 



早发现、早报告、早隔离、早治疗    18



武汉“封城”    20


应收尽收、应治尽治   22



集中拉网式大排查   24
目录 Contents
Effective Measures
具体措施
火神山医院    26


雷神山医院    28


方舱医院    30


“一人一方案” “一人一团队”    32






钟南山:新冠肺炎疫情联防联控专家组组长    35


李兰娟:国家传染病重点学科带头人    37

 
刘智明:因患新冠肺炎不幸殉职的武昌医院院长    39


Huoshenshan Hospital    27


Leishenshan Hospital    29


Temporary Treatment Centers    31

 
A Dedicated Team and a Personalized Treatment Plan for Every Patient    33





Zhong Nanshan, Head of China’s COVID-19 Expert Team    36


Li Lanjuan: Pioneer of Epidemiology    38


Liu Zhiming: Hospital Chief Who Died of COVID-19    40

Brave Fighters
人物案例
张继先:疫情上报“第一人”   41


巴哈古丽:方舱医院的领舞者     43



武汉快递小哥汪勇:组织志愿者接送医护人员    45





习近平赴一线考察新冠肺炎疫情防控工作     48



广大医务工作者    50


解放军指战员    52


社区工作者    54

Zhang Jixian: the First Doctor to Report Novel Coronavirus     42


Bahargul Toleheng: 
the Dancer in the Temporary Treatment Center     44


Wang Yong: a Courier Volunteer     46





Xi Jinping Inspecting Frontline Epidemic Prevention and Control     49

 
Medical Workers    51


PLA Commanders and Soldiers    53


Community Workers    55



Unity Is Strength.
战“疫”微镜头
Police Officers    57


Grassroots Officials    59


Officials Designated from Higher Levels    61
 

Volunteers    63
 

Patients    65


Ordinary People    67
 




Using Facemasks Properly     70
公安干警    56


基层干部   58


下沉干部    60

 
志愿者    62


患者群众    64

 
普通民众    66





正确使用口罩    69
Information on COVID-19 Prevention and Control
防控知识
尽量减少外出活动    71


保持手卫生    73


健康监测与就医    75


保持良好卫生和健康习惯    77

 
不接触、购买和食用野生动物    79
 

家庭防控    81


公共场所防控    83


公共交通工具防控    85





Minimizing Outings    72


Keeping Hands Clean    74


Health Monitoring and Going to Hospital    76


Maintaining Good Hygiene and Health Habits    78
 

No Touching, Buying and Eating of Wild Animals    80

 
Family Prevention and Control     82


Prevention and Control in Public Places     84


Prevention and Control on Public Transportation    86



办公场所防控    87


养老机构防控    89
  

幼儿园、学校防控    91
 

老年人防控   93


儿童防控    95


学生防控    97


有疾病流行地区居住旅行史人员防控    99
 


居家隔离人员防控   101

Office Prevention and Control    88


Prevention and Control in Nursing Homes    90


Prevention and Control in Kindergartens and Schools     92


Prevention and Control for the Elderly     94


Prevention and Control for Children     96


Prevention and Control for Students    98

 
Prevention and Control for People Who Have Traveled or Resided in an Epidemic Area    100


Prevention and Control for People 
Under Home Quarantine    102
居家发热患者防控    103


疑似病例防控    105
  

医疗机构就诊防护   107


Prevention and Control for Fever Patients at Home    104


Prevention and Control for Suspected Cases    106


Prevention and Control for Visits to 
Medical Institutions     108

Effective Measures
具体措施
国务院联防联控工作机制
习近平多次作出重要指示,要求加强联防联控工作,筑牢群防群治的严密防线。2020年1月20日,结合新冠肺炎疫情防控形势,针对春节期间人群流动大的特点,国家卫生健康委召开会议强调,全国卫生系统要健全联防联控工作机制,完善多部门联防联控疫情预案,强化对地方工作的指导和支持。1月21日,中国政府将新冠肺炎疫情防控上升到国家层面,启动国务院应对新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎疫情联防联控机制(简称“国务院联防联控机制”)。
联防联控工作机制是中国政府为防控新冠肺炎疫情作出的一项制度性安排,以疫情防控为中心,打破部门职责的界限,实现疫情防范应对工作的立体化、全覆盖和高效协同。国务院联防联控机制由国卫生健康委牵头,成员单位共32个部门,下设疫情防控、医疗救治、科研攻关、宣传、外事、后勤保障、前方工作等工作组,分别由相关部委负责同志任组长,明确职责,分工协作,形成防控疫情的有效合力。截至2月28日,国务院联防联控机制多次召开新闻发布会,累计印发了30余项通知、技术指引和工作方案文件,介绍疫情防控、物资保障、科研攻关、复工复产等相关工作最新进展,解读政策措施,回应各方关切。
在党中央国务院决策部署下,各省市相继构建联防联控、群防群控体系,依法、科学、有序开展疫情防控工作。
The Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council
Xi Jinping has reiterated the importance of a society-wide effort in epidemic prevention and control, and of building a strong line of defense by mobilizing the public.
On January 20, 2020, confronted by the outbreak of the epidemic and taking into consideration the significant movement of people during the upcoming Spring Festival, the NHC proposed setting up a joint anti-epidemic prevention and control mechanism within the national health system, improving inter-agency preparation and coordination, and providing guidance and support to relevant work at local level.
On January 21, the Chinese government upgraded the joint mechanism to the national level and launched the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council in Response to the Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia (“Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council” for short).
Focusing on epidemic prevention and control, the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism breaks down the boundaries between different government departments and agencies and has achieved highly efficient inter-agency coordination. With the NHC as the coordinator, a total of 32 central government departments cooperate under the mechanism, with internal work teams covering epidemic prevention and control, medical treatment, scientific research, publicity, foreign affairs, logistics support, and work at the front line. Each of these work teams is headed by a leading official from a relevant ministry or commission; their duties and division of responsibilities are clear . Their close collaboration has built a strong synergy in the battle against the epidemic.
By February 28, in addition to holding press conferences, the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council had issued more than 30 notices, technical guidelines and work plans, briefing the public about the latest progress in epidemic prevention and control, material supplies, scientific research and resumption of work, interpreting policies and measures, and responding to public concerns.
Following the decisions and arrangements of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, all provinces and cities have established joint prevention and control mechanisms and mechanisms for society-wide efforts against the virus, and taken legal, science-based and orderly measures to fight the epidemic.
成立国务院联防联控工作机制科研攻关组
人类同疫病较量最有力的武器就是科学技术,战胜大灾大疫离不开科学发展和技术创新。习近平在考察科研攻关工作时指出,防控新冠肺炎疫情斗争有两条战线,一条是疫情防控第一线,另一条就是科研和物资生产,两条战线要相互配合、并肩作战。
2020年1月20日,按照中共中央国务院决策部署,科技部、国家卫生健康委、发展改革委、教育部、财政部、农业农村部、海关总署、国家林草局、中国科学院、国家药监局、国家中医药局、中央军委后勤保障部等部门和单位迅速响应,成立国务院联防联控工作机制科研攻关组(简称“科研攻关组”),并成立以钟南山院士为组长、14位专家组成的科研攻关专家组,组织动员全国优势科研力量开展攻关。
科研攻关组围绕“可溯、可诊、可治、可防”的防控需求,主要开展四方面工作:一是确定科研主攻方向,即临床救治和药物、疫苗研发、检测技术和产品、病毒病原学和流行病学、动物模型构建等五大主攻方向;二是快速部署应急任务,启动科技攻关应急专项,组织跨学科、跨领域的科研团队,联合地方省市、动员社会和企业力量开展科技攻关和应急研发;三是与医疗救治组建立协同机制,加快阶段性研究成果在临床救治方面的快速应用;四是加强规范管理和服务,通过印发政策文件、出台指导意见等措施,确保科研攻关工作合法合规推进。
截至2月底,在中央决策部署下,全国科技界团结协作、争分夺秒,先后启动了四批共20个应急攻关项目,各主攻方向均取得阶段性进展,为打赢疫情防控的人民战争、总体战、阻击战提供强大科技支撑。
Science and technology offers humanity the most powerful weapon to control disease, and scientific development and technological innovation are indispensable in treating disease and fighting epidemics.
While inspecting relevant scientific R&D programs, Xi Jinping pointed out that there are two battle lines in the war against the coronavirus: epidemic prevention and control, and producing scientific research and equipment. He urged the workers on these two battle lines to cooperate and fight side by side.
Following the decision and arrangements made by the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, the scientific research and innovation team under the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council (“Scientific Research and Innovation Team” for short) was established on January 20, 2020. It includes members from the Ministry of Science and Technology, the NHC, the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, the General Administration of Customs, the National Forestry and Grassland Administration, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the National Medical Products Administration, the National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, the Logistics Support Department of the Central Military Commission and other government departments and agencies. China’s COVID-19 Expert Team, headed by Academician Zhong Nanshan and composed of 14 experts, was also established to organize and lead scientific research facilities across the country to tackle key problems.
In line with the principles of “tracing the infection source, diagnosing the disease, curing the patients, and blocking the virus,” the Scientific Research and Innovation Team has addressed four main lines of work:
1. to determine five major directions of scientific research – clinical treatment, drugs and vaccine research and development, detection technology and products, viral etiology and epidemiology, and animal model construction;
2. to undertake emergency tasks without delay, including launching emergency projects for tackling key scientific and technological problems, organizing cross-disciplinary and cross-domain research teams, and carrying out scientific research and emergency R&D in collaboration with provincial and municipal government departments and enterprises;
3. to establish a cooperation mechanism with the medical treatment team to accelerate the application of phased research results in clinical treatment;
4. to enhance procedure-based management and services, and ensure that scientific research follows the law and relevant regulations.
By the end of February, scientists and researchers working together across the country had started 20 emergency projects in four batches, and made phased progress in all its major directions of scientific research, providing strong support to the nation’s battle against the epidemic.
The Scientific Research and Innovation Team Under the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council
早发现、早报告、早隔离、早治疗
“早发现、早报告、早隔离、早治疗”是中央对防控新冠肺炎疫情提出的明确要求,也是中国科学防治新冠肺炎的一项重要措施。2020年 1月20日,国家卫生健康委高级别专家组研判指出,在疫情上升期,早发现、早隔离是最有效的防控手段,要尽可能减少传播。1月25日中共中央政治局常委会召开专题会议,要求做好疫情监测、排查、预警等工作,切实做到早发现、早报告、早隔离、早治疗。
随着疫情防控进入关键阶段,国务院应对新冠肺炎疫情联防联控机制印发《关于进一步强化责任落实 做好防治工作的通知》,对防控措施作出具体要求:及早发现和隔离病毒感染者,有效阻断疫情扩散蔓延;前移疫情防控关口,加强社区网格化管理,将各项防控措施抓早抓小、落细落实;进一步提高检测能力,优化确诊程序、缩短确诊时间,实行边诊边治。2月23日,习近平在统筹推进新冠肺炎疫情防控和经济社会发展工作部署会议上发表重要讲话,明确早发现、早报告、早隔离、早治疗的防控要求,强调要坚决遏制疫情扩散输出,对确诊患者应收尽收,对疑似患者应检尽检,对密切接触者应隔尽隔,落实“四早”要求,找到管好每一个风险环节,决不能留下任何死角和空白。
随着“早发现、早报告、早隔离、早治疗”措施逐渐显效,疫情蔓延势头得到初步遏制,防控工作取得阶段性成效。
Early Detection, Early Reporting, Early Isolation and Early Treatment
“Early detection, early reporting, early isolation and early treatment” is a clear principle established by the central leadership, and it is also an important measure taken by the country to fight the virus.
On January 20, 2020, the High-level Expert Group of the NHC pointed out that early detection and early isolation are the most effective means to block the rapid escalation of the virus and keep transmission to a minimum. The Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee on January 25 demanded monitoring, screening and early warning to ensure early detection, early reporting, early isolation and early treatment.
As epidemic prevention and control entered a critical stage, on February 7 the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council issued a document on the responsibilities of different parties. The document emphasized the urgency of early detection of infections and early isolation of those infected to effectively prevent the transmission of the virus. To this end, it is necessary to deploy preventive methods at an early stage and perform meticulous community grid management. It is also necessary to further improve testing capability, optimize the diagnostic process, shorten diagnosis time, and carry out diagnosis and treatment simultaneously.
At the national meeting for coordinating China’s epidemic control and economic and social development, held on February 23, Xi Jinping reiterated the principles of early detection, early reporting, early isolation and early treatment. He called for a greater effort to curb the spread of the epidemic, hospitalize all confirmed cases, conduct thorough testing of all suspected cases, and isolate all close contacts. He demanded tracking and managing of every potential risk without leaving any dead corners.
As a result of these efforts the spread of the virus has been initially curbed, and phased effects have been achieved in the prevention and control of the epidemic.
武汉“封城”
2020年1月22日,中共中央果断要求湖北省对人员外流实施全面严格管控。1月23日,湖北省新冠肺炎疫情防控指挥部指挥长会议通告,1月23日10时起,武汉全市城市公交、地铁、轮渡、长途客运暂停运营;无特殊原因,市民不要离开武汉,机场、火车站离汉通道暂时关闭。为遏制疫情发展,1月25日,武汉市进一步阻断武昌、汉口、汉阳“武汉三镇”之间的公共交通,从1月26日0时起,除经许可的保供运输车、免费交通车、公务用车外,武汉中心城区区域实行机动车禁行管理。
这些“封城”措施,是有效阻断疫情传播、遏制疫情蔓延的必要之举。但“封城”并不意味着“孤城”或“围城”。为确保基本生活不受影响,武汉市新冠肺炎防控指挥部及时通告物资储备和供应情况,呼吁市民不用恐慌,不必囤积;开通24小时电话接收社会各界爱心捐赠,做好物资接收调配工作;紧急征集6000台出租车分配给各社区,为辖区居民出行提供免费服务,解决居家出行不便等问题。
武汉是中国中西部地区的中心城市,是全国重要交通枢纽。“封城”对武汉影响巨大。然而面对疫情,武汉、湖北和中国果断采取了有力措施和行动,做出了巨大努力和牺牲,为全球疫情防控赢得了宝贵时间。
Wuhan in Lockdown
On January 22, 2020, the CPC Central Committee required that Hubei province implement comprehensive and strict control over people movements.
On January 23, the Epidemic Prevention and Control Headquarter of Wuhan announced that from 10:00 a.m. on January 23, 2020, the city’s urban bus, subway, ferry and long-distance passenger transportation would be suspended, the departure channels of airport and railway stations be temporarily closed, and the residents of Wuhan should not leave without special reasons.
To contain the epidemic, public transportation between Wuchang, Hankou and Hanyang – the three districts that make up the city of Wuhan – was blocked on January 25. From 00:00 on January 26, all non-essential vehicles were banned in downtown Wuhan other than vehicles with permits being used to guarantee material supplies, provide free transportation, and serve public needs.
These lockdown measures were essential to effectively block the virus and prevent the epidemic from spreading. But a lockdown did not mean isolating Wuhan. To minimize the impact on its citizens, the Epidemic Prevention and Control Headquarter of Wuhan issued prompt briefings on the city’s material reserves and supplies, and reminded the public that there was no need for panic-buying or hoarding. A 24-hour hotline was opened to receive public donations, and solid measures were taken to receive and distribute the donations. A fleet of 6,000 taxis was urgently mobilized to serve communities and provide free services for those in need.
Wuhan is a key city in central China and an important national transportation hub. The lockdown had an enormous impact on the city. However, in the face of the epidemic, the measures and actions taken by Wuhan, Hubei and China were resolute and effective. By making these great efforts and sacrifices, they bought valuable time for the world to fight against the epidemic.
应收尽收、应治尽治
控制源头、切断传播途径,是传染病防控的治本之策。新冠肺炎疫情发生后,习近平多次作出重要指示,要求坚决做到应收尽收,全力做好救治工作,切实提高收治率和治愈率、降低感染率和病亡率。各省市相继出台措施,围绕筛查、转运、收治和治疗四个环节全面加强收治工作。
2020年1月26日,武汉市要求所有医院发热门诊24小时接诊,其中确诊和高度疑似新冠肺炎的患者,医院必须“应收尽收”,统一收治。2月17日,湖北省武汉市等疫情重点地区开展集中拉网式大排查,对“四类人员”进行清底摸排。各地根据防控救治需要,通过优化畅通收治转诊通道、改造扩容定点医院、增加医疗机构床位、优化诊疗方案等有效措施提高收治能力,取得积极效果。有关部门和机构开设线上求助通道,征集各地遇到就医困难的患者信息,助力应收尽收、应治尽治。
坚决做到应收尽收、应治尽治,是彻底战胜疫情的关键之举,也是落实“集中患者、集中专家、集中资源、集中救治”要求的重要原则,为推动疫情防控形势加速向好提供了坚实保障。
Admitting All Suspected and Confirmed Cases for Treatment
Controlling the source and cutting off the route of transmission are the fundamental means to prevent and control infectious diseases. After the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic, Xi Jinping issued instructions on several occasions, demanding an all-out effort to admit all suspected and confirmed cases for treatment, raise the hospital admission rate and the recovery rate, and lower the infection rate and the case fatality rate. Different provinces and cities subsequently adopted diverse measures to comprehensively strengthen screening, transfer, hospitalization and treatment of patients.
On January 26, 2020, Wuhan required that fever clinics in all hospitals must operate round the clock to admit all confirmed and probable cases, and gather them together for treatment. On February 17, Wuhan and other regions in Hubei that had been severely hit by the epidemic launched mass dragnet screening of potential virus carriers to collect accurate information about four groups of people (confirmed cases, suspected cases, febrile patients and close contacts).
Various localities took effective measures to raise the hospital admission and treatment capacity, such as optimizing patient transfer channels, rebuilding and expanding designated hospitals, increasing beds in medical institutions, and improving diagnosis and treatment plans. The results were effective. Relevant government departments and institutions opened online channels to collect information from patients who were having difficulties in seeking medical assistance, and help them gain admission to hospital for treatment as soon as possible.
Admitting all suspected and confirmed cases to hospital is key to thoroughly defeating the epidemic. It followed the guiding principle of treating the infected in dedicated facilities by senior medical professionals from all over the country and with all necessary resources, and provided a solid guarantee for positive results.
集中拉网式大排查
2020年2月17日至19日, 武汉市展开集中拉网式大排查, 对各区各街道辖区居民进行筛查甄别,坚持“不落一户、不漏一人”。这是坚持人民生命至上、遵循应收尽收原则的具体举措。
集中拉网式大排查以社区为基础,彻底排查清“四类人员”(即确诊患者、疑似患者、无法排除感染可能的发热患者、确诊患者的密切接触者),推动落实“五个百分之百”工作目标(即确诊患者百分之百应收尽收、疑似患者百分之百核酸检测、发热病人百分之百进行检测、密切接触者百分之百隔离、小区村庄百分之百实行24小时封闭管理)。
这次大排查运用人工智能技术,大大提高了工作效率,在3天时间内完成3300多个社区、村湾近1000万人口的清底排查。在此基础上,通过大数据平台整合归并医院、疾控中心、医保、公安、民政、通信运营商等相关单位的信息数据,对“四类人员”有针对性地开展核酸检测、流行病调查,精准快速地锁定密切接触者,并在第一时间实施隔离,形成了对传染源的有效锁定和有效阻断。
Mass Dragnet Screening of Potential Virus Carriers
From February 17 to 19, Wuhan launched a mass dragnet screening of potential virus carriers among its residents in every community, leaving no one unscreened. This respected the principle that saving lives is of paramount importance, and facilitated the goal of having all confirmed cases hospitalized for treatment.
The screening was designed to identify four groups of people (confirmed cases, suspected cases, febrile patients who were possibly infected, and close contacts). The goal was to ensure 100 percent admission of confirmed cases, 100 percent nucleic acid tests for suspected cases, 100 percent diagnosis of febrile patients, 100 percent isolation of close contacts, and 100 percent 24-hour closed management of communities and villages.
By the use of AI technology, the investigation was conducted with great efficiency, and reached approximately 10 million people in more than 3,300 communities and villages within three days. Based on a big data platform, the information collected was integrated with the records kept by the hospitals, disease control centers, medical insurance agencies, public security and civil affairs authorities, telecommunications carriers and other relevant units. Targeted nucleic acid tests and epidemiological studies were carried out on the four groups of people, which helped to accurately and rapidly track close contacts and isolate them without delay, therefore effectively identifying and blocking the sources of infection.
火神山医院
隔离和收治是新冠肺炎疫情防控工作的重点任务。为确保疑似和确诊病例“应收尽收、应治尽治”,2020年1月23日,武汉市决定参照2003年抗击非典期间北京小汤山医院模式,在武汉市蔡甸区知音湖附近建设一座专门医院,集中收治新冠肺炎患者,命名“火神山医院”。当日施工筹备工作启动后,设计人员在五小时内完成场地平整设计图,60小时内交付全部设计施工图。7000多名建设者们驰援武汉、齐心协力、日夜奋战,先后完成了通信基建、土地平整、测绘定位、病房搭设和电力施工等任务,仅用10天建成了这座收治患者的“安全岛”。2日2日,火神山医院正式交付解放军支援湖北医疗队管理使用。火神山医院总建筑面积近3.4万平方米,设置床位1000张,开设重症病区、普通病区,设置感染控制、检验、特诊、放射诊断等辅助科室。
2月3日,经中央军委主席习近平批准,军队抽组1400名医护人员承担火神山医院医疗救治任务。这些医护人员中有不少人曾参加小汤山医院抗击非典任务,援助塞拉利昂、利比里亚抗击埃博拉疫情,具有丰富的传染病救治经验。2月4日,国家医疗保障局宣布将火神山医院纳入医保定点医院,执行公立医院收费标准,火神山医院正式接诊新冠肺炎确诊患者。2月13日,火神山医院首批治愈患者出院。
火神山医院的建设展现了稳中有急、静中有争的“中国速度”。医院建设期间,工地现场开设24小时直播,数千万中外网络用户以“云监工”形式为一线建设者点赞加油。
Huoshenshan Hospital
Isolation and admission of patients are the key tasks in epidemic prevention and control. To ensure that all suspected and confirmed cases could be hospitalized and treated, Wuhan decided on January 23, 2020 to build an emergency hospital near Zhiyin Lake in Caidian District, following the example of Beijing when the capital built the Xiaotangshan Hospital during the battle against SARS in 2003. Named “Huoshenshan” (“Fire God Mountain”), the new hospital was designed to treat patients suffering from novel coronavirus pneumonia.
Once the decision was made and preparatory work was launched, the designers completed the site plans within five hours and delivered all design and construction drawings within 60 hours. More than 7,000 construction workers rushed to assist Wuhan. By working around the clock in three shifts they were able to complete the tasks of surveying and mapping, leveling the site, erecting the building, installing communications infrastructure and power supplies, and finishing construction in only 10 days. On February 2, Huoshenshan Hospital was officially handed over to the medical units of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) who had come earlier to assist Wuhan.
With a total floor space of 34,000 square meters, Huoshenshan Hospital has 1,000 beds for intensive care units and general wards. It has supporting departments covering infection control, clinical laboratory, special treatment, and radiodiagnosis.
On February 3, with the approval of Xi Jinping, chairman of the Central Military Commission, 1,400 PLA medical personnel were deployed to staff the new Huoshenshan Hospital. Many of them had worked at Xiaotangshan Hospital in the fight against SARS and assisted Sierra Leone and Liberia in the fight against Ebola. They had a wealth of experience in the treatment of infectious diseases.
On February 4, the National Healthcare Security Administration announced that Huoshenshan Hospital would be designated a hospital registered for medical insurance, and the new hospital would adopt the charging standards of public hospitals. On the same day, Huoshenshan Hospital began to receive confirmed patients. On February 13, the hospital discharged the first group of cured patients.
The construction of Huoshenshan Hospital shows how fast things can be done in China in times of emergency. During the construction of the hospital, a 24-hour live broadcast was streamed on the construction site. Every day, tens of millions of Chinese and foreign netizens acted as “cloud supervisors” rooting for the builders on the front line.
雷神山医院
2020年1月25日,火神山医院建设刚刚展开,武汉市决定在武汉市江夏区黄家湖附近再建设一所专门医院,集中收治各医院发热门诊和住院确诊的新冠病毒肺炎患者,定名“雷神山医院”。
面对疫情,设计者和建设者们分秒必争。1月26日,医院设计总体方案完成;1月27日,开始大规模施工;1月28日,完成通信基站基础设施新建及改造任务;1月29日,完成电力配套工程建设,开始供电运行。建设高峰期,逾万名建设者、近1500台机械设备昼夜不停施工。经过10余天施工建设,雷神山医院于2月8日交付使用,由武汉大学中南医院正式接管,当晚开始收治首批患者。医院建设面积近8万平方米,分为医疗隔离区、医护生活区和综合后勤区三个部分,共设1600张床位。2月18日,这所医院首例治愈患者出院。
与火神山医院一样,雷神山医院也是中国抗击新冠肺炎疫情的重大工程。在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,各建设单位党组织团结带领干部职工,坚定不移落实中央决策部署,众志成城、全力以赴,筑就了普通劳动者的奋斗奇迹,彰显了集中力量办大事的社会主义制度优势,为打赢疫情防控阻击战提供了重要保障。
Leishenshan Hospital
On January 25, 2020, just after the construction of Huoshenshan Hospital had begun, Wuhan decided to build another emergency hospital near Huangjia Lake, Jiangxia District. The new hospital, named “Leishenshan” (“Thunder God Mountain”) was designed to treat novel coronavirus patients diagnosed with pneumonia in fever clinics or transferred from other hospitals.
The designers and builders raced against the clock. On January 26 the overall design of the hospital was completed; on January 27 large-scale construction began; on January 28 the communication base station infrastructure was completed; and on January 29 the power unit was completed and began to supply electricity to the hospital. At the peak of construction, more than 10,000 builders and nearly 1,500 sets of machinery and equipment were engaged in the fight, night and day.
After just over 10 days of construction work, Leishenshan Hospital entered service on February 8, officially taken over by Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, and the first group of patients were admitted that night.
The hospital covers an area of nearly 80,000 square meters and is divided into three sections: isolation units for the patients with a total of 1,600 beds, living space for the medical staff, and logistics. On February 18, the first patients cured in Leishenshan Hospital were discharged.
Like Huoshenshan Hospital, Leishenshan Hospital was a major weapon in China’s battle against the epidemic. Under the strong leadership of the CPC, the Party organizations of all construction units implemented the decisions and instructions issued by the CPC Central Committee. Ordinary workers united as one, spared themselves no effort, and created a miracle. The two hospitals demonstrate one of the institutional strengths of Chinese socialism – an ability to concentrate massive resources on major initiatives. The hospitals provided a vital guarantee of victory in the battle against the epidemic.
 方舱医院
方舱医院是以医疗方舱为载体,综合集成医疗与医技保障功能的现代化机动医疗系统,由医疗功能单元、病房单元和技术保障单元等部分构成,主要承担重大灾害救援、应急支援保障、巡回医疗服务等任务。方舱医院具有机动性好、展开部署快、环境适应性强等特点,能够适应突发的应急医学救援任务,受到各国普遍重视。
20世纪90年代起,中国开始自行设计研制方舱医院系统。经不断改造升级,第二代方舱医院先后在汶川、玉树抗震救灾中执行医疗救援任务。2020年2月,随着新冠肺炎疫情发展,武汉市将一批体育馆、会展中心、培训中心、工业园区厂房、职业高中等场地改造建成方舱医院,用于收治隔离轻症患者和观察病例。这些特殊的“急救医院”功能齐备,可以开展紧急救治、外科处置、临床检验等多项任务,同时配备心理医生团队,为患者提供心理支持和疏导。2月16日,国家发展改革委安排中央预算内投资2.3亿元,支持武汉市方舱医院完善设施及增添必要的医疗设备,以增强收治能力。截至2月22日,武汉市已投入运行16家方舱医院,开放病床超过12,000张。
建立和实施方舱医院是保障病患隔离、分流病患诊治、扩大收治容量、控制疫情发展的一项有效措施,在国家公共卫生应急保障中发挥重要作用。
Temporary Treatment Centers
Temporary treatment centers are built by means of a modern module-based mobile medical system that integrates the functions of medical treatment and clinical technology. Composed of medical treatment units, ward units and technical support units, temporary treatment centers are mainly used in major disaster relief and emergency support operations, and for temporary provision of medical services. Offering mobility, rapid deployment, and strong environmental adaptability, these improvised hospitals are capable of undertaking medical relief work in cases of emergency, and are highly valued by many countries.
China began to design and develop its own temporary treatment center system in the 1990s. The second-generation temporary treatment centers carried out medical relief work following the earthquakes in Wenchuan and Yushu.
In February 2020, to counter the spread of COVID-19, Wuhan transformed several gymnasiums, convention and exhibition centers, training centers, industrial park factories, vocational high schools and other venues into temporary treatment centers. They were used to isolate mild cases and cases under observation. These modular hospitals provide a complete range of services and can carry out emergency treatment, surgical operations, clinical tests and other tasks. In Wuhan they also had a team of psychologists to provide psychological support and counseling for patients.
On February 16 the National Development and Reform Commission assigned 230 million yuan (c. 33 million US dollars) from the central budget to the temporary treatment centers in Wuhan, to improve their facilities, add necessary medical equipment, and enhance their treatment capacity. By February 22, 16 temporary treatment centers had been brought into operation in Wuhan, providing more than 12,000 beds.
Establishing temporary treatment centers is an effective measure to ensure patient isolation, decrease patient density, expand treatment capacity, and control the spread of epidemics. In Wuhan the temporary treatment centers played an important role in providing emergency support for the national public health system.
“一人一方案” “一人一团队”
2020年1月20日,武汉市新冠肺炎疫情防控指挥部工作会议提出,全力做好患者救治工作,对重症患者“一人一方案”“一人一团队”,确保轻症患者尽快治愈出院。
采取“一人一方案”“一人一团队”措施,就是调集一切资源,以最强的技术力量、最佳的护理服务,为患者精准提供医护团队和诊疗方案,开展及时、高效、有针对性的治疗,提高治愈率。全国各地在救治工作中纷纷采用了这一模式。
在疫情形势依然严峻复杂,防控处在最吃劲的关键阶段,采取“一人一方案”“一人一团队”措施是落实“集中患者、集中专家、集中资源、集中救治”要求的具体体现,也是行之有效的救治工作经验。
A Dedicated Team and a Personalized Treatment Plan for Every Patient
On January 20, the Epidemic Prevention and Control Headquarter of Wuhan decided to upgrade the treatment of patients. A dedicated team and a personalized treatment plan for each patient was applied in severe cases, while mild cases were to be cured and discharged as early as possible.
To achieve this, it is necessary to mobilize all resources, provide patients with customized medical teams, targeted diagnosis and treatment, the strongest technical force, and the best nursing service, and carry out timely, efficient and targeted treatment.
The process was widely adopted in the treatment of patients across the country. When prevention and control work was at the most critical stage, this practice supported the goal of “treating the infected in dedicated facilities using senior medical professionals from all over the country and with all necessary resources.” It proved highly effective.
Brave Fighters
人物案例
钟南山:新冠肺炎疫情联防联控专家组组长
钟南山,中国国家呼吸系统疾病临床医学研究中心主任,中国工程院院士,中国防治呼吸道传染病的领军人。2003年,面对非典疫情,钟南山带领课题组在全世界率先探索出了一套富有明显疗效的防治经验,最早制定出《非典型肺炎临床诊断标准》,被世界卫生组织专家组认为对全世界抗击非典型肺炎具有指导意义。他所在的广东成为全球非典病人治愈率最高、死亡率最低的地区之一。
2020年新冠肺炎疫情爆发,84岁的钟南山再度“出山”,出任新冠肺炎疫情联防联控工作机制科研攻关专家组组长。在赴武汉进行调研考察后,他接受电视采访,指出新冠病毒存在人传人的现象。疫情期间,钟南山向公众普及新冠病毒信息、疫情防控情况、药物研发进展,带领团队重点攻关重症、危重症和疑难病人诊治,被普遍赞誉为“全民偶像”“国士无双”。
Zhong Nanshan, Head of China’s COVID-19 Expert Team
Zhong Nanshan is director of the National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, and a leading Chinese expert in preventing and treating respiratory infectious diseases.
During the outbreak of SARS in 2003, Zhong led a group of scientists working on effective prevention and treatment measures. His team was the first to formulate a set of standards for clinical diagnosis of SARS, which was recognized by WHO experts as of significant value in the global battle against SARS. Guangdong province, where Zhong worked, was one of the areas with the highest cure rate and the lowest mortality rate in the world.
When the novel coronavirus epidemic broke out in early 2020, the 84-year-old Zhong returned to the battlefield and was appointed to head both China’s COVID-19 Expert Team and the High-level Expert Group of the NHC. After a field trip to Wuhan, he warned in a TV interview that there was human-to-human transmission for the novel coronavirus. During the outbreak, Zhong educated the public about the virus, and updated them on the trend of the epidemic and drug R&D. He also led a team focusing on treating severe cases, critically ill cases and cases with additional complex conditions. He is hailed by the Chinese people as a national idol and “one-of-a-kind.”
李兰娟:
国家传染病重点学科带头人
李兰娟,中国传染病学专家,国家卫生健康委高级别专家组成员,中国工程院院士。曾承担SARS、手足口病、地震灾后防疫、甲型H1N1等传染病诊治研究任务,尤其在防控人感染H7N9禽流感救治研究中取得众多原创性成果,为中国传染病诊治做出了重大贡献。
在新冠肺炎疫情蔓延之际, 73岁的李兰娟率医疗队抵达武汉。在收治危重患者的定点医院,李兰娟不分昼夜地工作,向公众普及病毒知识、与医护人员商讨诊疗方案,每天只睡3个小时。在到达武汉后的第3天,李兰娟院士团队发布了重大研究成果,称阿比朵尔、达芦那韦两款药物能够有效抑制新型冠状病毒。随后,阿比朵尔列入《新型冠状病毒肺炎诊疗方案(试行第六版)》。
Li Lanjuan: Pioneer of Epidemiology
Li Lanjuan is a Chinese epidemiologist, a member of the High-level Expert Group of the NHC, and an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering. She has undertaken diagnosis, treatment and research in infectious disease outbreaks such as SARS, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, post-quake epidemics, and the H1N1 flu virus. She made many groundbreaking discoveries in the prevention and control of the H7N9 flu virus, and has made an enormous contribution to the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases in China.
After the outbreak of the novel coronavirus, the 73-year-old Li Lanjuan led a medical team to Wuhan and worked day and night at the hospitals designated for treating severe cases. She educated the public about the virus, discussed guidelines for diagnosis and treatment with other medical workers, and slept only three hours a day.
Three days after arriving in Wuhan, Li’s team announced an important research achievement, indicating that Arbidol and Darunavir could effectively control the virus. Arbidol was later added in the Guidelines on the Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment (Provisional 6th Edition).
刘智明:因患新冠肺炎不幸殉职的武昌医院院长
刘智明,武汉市武昌医院院长。1月21日,武昌医院将被紧急改造为第一批收治新冠肺炎患者的定点医院。自此,刘智明一直坚持在一线指导临床工作,吃住都在医院。1月24日,武昌医院开始大规模收治病人,刘智明也因在救治工作中感染,被确诊为新冠肺炎患者。在住进重症隔离病房后,刘智明依然每天询问病人收治情况、安排医院工作,直至生命最后一刻。
2月18日,刘智明去世,享年51岁。他是新冠病毒肺炎疫情期间首位殉职的医院院长。世界卫生组织总干事谭德塞在向刘智明的去世表示哀悼时说:“刘智明医生的去世是巨大的损失,他在疫情期间挽救了无数生命。” 截至2月22日,共有400多名重症患者从武昌医院治愈出院。
Liu Zhiming: Hospital Chief Who Died of COVID-19
Liu Zhiming was president of Wuchang Hospital in Wuhan. On January 21, his hospital was urgently turned into a designated hospital for treating patients infected with the novel coronavirus. From then, Liu stuck to his post and kept working on the front line without a single day away from the hospital. On January 24, a large number of confirmed cases were admitted to the hospital, and Liu was unfortunately diagnosed with the coronavirus. While being treated in the isolation ward, Liu continued to inquire about the other patients every day and kept working until the end of his life.
Liu passed away at the age of 51 on February 18. He was the first hospital chief to die of the virus. WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus mourned the passing of Liu, saying that he had touched many lives and saved numerous patients in the COVID-19 outbreak. By February 22, more than 400 severe cases had been cured and discharged from Wuchang Hospital.
张继先:疫情上报“第一人”
张继先,湖北省中西医结合医院呼吸与重症医学科主任,在非典疫情防治期间曾担任武汉市江汉区专家组成员。她以超强的专业意识,最早判断并坚持上报新冠肺炎疫情,在中国率先拉响了疫情防控警报。
2019年12月27日,张继先发现接诊的病人中有一家三口肺部CT检查结果显示肺部表现相同,在给患者做了各项流感相关检查结果呈阴性后,她立即向医院做了情况汇报,并由医院上报给江汉区疾控中心。随后两天,医院门诊又收治了3名症状和肺部表现一致的患者,张继先再次上报给医院,由此成为此次新冠肺炎疫情上报的“第一人”。
新冠肺炎疫情防控期间,作为呼吸内科主任,张继先负责危重患者救治,工作量非常大。她每天七点半到医院,查房了解病情,制定诊疗方案,经常忙到晚上十点以后。由于发现及时、准备充分,张继先所在科室做到了无一例医护人员感染和无一例患者交叉感染。2020年2月4日,湖北省人力资源和社会保障厅、湖北省卫生健康委员会决定给予在疫情防控期间表现突出的张继先记大功奖励。
Zhang Jixian: the First Doctor to Report Novel Coronavirus
Zhang Jixian is director of the Respiratory and Intensive Care Unit of Hubei Provincial Hospital of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine. She was a member of the Expert Group of Jianghan District of Wuhan during the SARS outbreak in 2003. With an extremely acute professional awareness, Zhang was the first person to make the correct diagnosis and insist on reporting the epidemic to the higher authorities. She was the first to sound the alarm.
On December 27, 2019, Zhang Jixian was surprised to find that the lungs of three of her patients – two parents and a son – had provided similar CT images. As the results of various influenza-related tests on these three patients were all negative, she immediately alerted the hospital chief to the situation, who forwarded her report to the Jianghan District Center for Disease Control and Prevention. In the following two days, the hospital received another three patients with similar symptoms and lung scans, and Zhang reported this to the hospital again, thus becoming the first doctor to report the COVID-19 epidemic.
During the COVID-19 outbreak, Zhang had a very heavy workload treating critically ill patients. She arrived at the hospital at 7:30 every morning, knowing that a hectic schedule awaited her, making the rounds of the wards and formulating diagnosis and treatment schemes. She was often heavily occupied until after 10 o’clock at night.
Due to her timely discovery and careful precautions, no medical staff in Zhang’s department have been infected with the virus and no cross-infection has occurred among her patients. On February 4, Zhang was awarded a merit for her outstanding performance in the battle against the epidemic by the Human Resources and Social Security Department and the Health Committee of Hubei Province.
巴哈古丽:方舱医院的领舞者
巴哈古丽·托勒恒,是新疆维吾尔自治区第二批支援湖北医疗队武汉市方舱医院(武汉客厅)C区副领队。新冠肺炎疫情发生以来,新疆向湖北派出三批医疗队,第二批医疗队共100名医护人员和2名行政人员,巴哈古丽是其中一位行政人员。按照要求,她主要负责后勤工作,无需进舱。
2月12日,巴哈古丽得知一些患者心情不好,就主动进舱为患者跳新疆舞加油打气。她跳起了一段新疆哈萨克族民间舞蹈“黑走马”,引起患者们热情欢呼。这段视频被发布在国内社交平台上,当天即达到1.1亿阅读量和3.4万讨论量。此后,每当她走进方舱医院,患者们都会对这位虽已熟悉曼妙舞姿,却始终不知道长相的姑娘自发地欢呼“新疆的古丽来了!”巴哈古丽在接受采访时说,“我希望用舞蹈的方式调节一下他们的情绪,缓解一下他们的焦虑,让他们以乐观的心态面对治疗。”
Bahargul Toleheng: the Dancer in the Temporary Treatment Center
Bahargul Toleheng traveled with the second medical team from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region to Hubei. She worked as deputy head of Division C of a temporary treatment center in the Wuhan Parlor convention center. From the start of the epidemic, Xinjiang sent three medical teams to Hubei, the second of which had 100 medical workers. As one of the two executive staff, she was responsible for logistics, which meant that she did not need to work inside the temporary treatment center.
On February 12, as she learned that some patients were in low spirits, Bahargul volunteered to dance in the treatment center in order to cheer them up. She performed a traditional Kazak dance and received a rousing ovation from the patients. After her dancing video was posted on the Chinese social media, it quickly garnered 110 million views and 34,000 comments.
Afterward, whenever she went into the treatment center, the patients would spontaneously chant, “The lady from Xinjiang!” They had never seen her face as she wore a protective suit, but they knew all about her beautiful dance moves. “I hope my dance can help regulate their emotions, calm their nerves, and keep them positive about their treatment,” she said in an interview.
武汉快递小哥汪勇:组织志愿者接送医护人员
汪勇,一名生长于武汉的80后快递员。受新冠肺炎疫情影响,许多快递公司在春节期间暂停服务。2020年1月24日晚,在家照顾女儿的汪勇看到了一名武汉金银潭医院的护士发布在微信朋友圈的信息,得知由于车辆限行、公交车和地铁停运,很多医护人员下夜班后无法回家,遂决定义务接送医护人员上下班。第一天,汪勇服务了十几名武汉金银潭医院的医护人员后,感到一个人力量有限,于是开始在朋友圈发布消息招募志愿者,并建立医护服务群,共同解决医护人员出行问题。此外,他还联系了多家为医护人员免费提供盒饭的餐厅与企业。
疫情期间,在汪勇的帮助下,1000多名医护人员解决了出行和就餐问题。他说:“我是一个没有资源的人,一路走来,特别感谢参与的志愿者和企业的帮助。大家都在努力,我只是一个组织的人。”
Wang Yong: a Courier Volunteer
Wang Yong is a courier and a native of Wuhan, born in the 1980s. Affected by the epidemic, many express delivery companies suspended their services during the Spring Festival. On the evening of January 24, Wang read a message posted on WeChat by a nurse at Jinyintan Hospital in Wuhan. Learning that due to traffic restrictions and the suspension of buses and subways, many medical workers could not get home after the night shift, Wang volunteered to take them to and from work.
On the first day, he offered help to more than a dozen medical staff of Jinyintan Hospital. But he felt that one person’s contribution was limited, so he posted messages on WeChat looking for more volunteers to help. He also contacted a couple of restaurants and food producers and helped them deliver free box lunches to health care workers.
Wang has helped more than 1,000 medical workers with their commuting and dining problems. “I have no resources. I am grateful to other volunteers and businesses that have offered help. Everyone is working hard. I am just one of them,” he said.
Unity Is Strength
战“疫”微镜头
习近平赴一线考察新冠肺炎疫情防控工作
2020年2月10日,习近平在北京调研指导新型冠状病毒肺炎疫情防控工作。3月2日,习近平在北京考察新冠肺炎防控科研攻关工作。3月10日,习近平专门赴抗击疫情的主战场湖北省武汉市考察新冠肺炎疫情防控工作,在火神山医院和东湖新城社区这两个抗疫阵地,看望慰问奋战在一线的广大医务工作者、解放军指战员、社区工作者、公安干警、基层干部、下沉干部、志愿者和患者群众、社区居民,勉励大家坚定信心,战胜疫情。考察期间,他在向居家隔离的社区居民挥手致意,鼓励“大家一起加油”,叮嘱“武汉人喜欢吃活鱼,多组织供应”,点赞医务人员是新时代“最可爱的人”,表达“党和人民感谢武汉人民”深切之情。
实地考察结束后,习近平主持召开了一场电视电话会议,这是继2月23日统筹推进新冠肺炎疫情防控和经济社会发展工作部署会议、3月6日决战决胜脱贫攻坚座谈会之后,他与湖北各地领导干部再次以这种方式 “面对面”。在会议讲话中,习近平作出重要判断:湖北和武汉疫情防控形势发生积极向好变化,取得阶段性重要成果,初步实现了稳定局势、扭转局面的目标。当前,疫情防控任务依然艰巨繁重。越是在这个时候,越是要保持头脑清醒,越是要慎终如始,越是要再接再厉、善作善成,继续把疫情防控作为当前头等大事和最重要的工作,毫不放松抓紧抓实抓细各项防控工作,坚决打赢湖北保卫战、武汉保卫战。
习近平指出,这次新冠肺炎疫情防控是对治理体系和治理能力的一次大考,既有经验,也有教训。要放眼长远,总结经验教训,加快补齐治理体系的短板和弱项,为保障人民生命安全和身体健康筑牢制度防线。要着力完善城市治理体系和城乡基层治理体系,树立“全周期管理”意识,努力探索超大城市现代化治理新路子。
Xi Jinping Inspecting Frontline Epidemic Prevention and Control
On February 10, 2020, Xi Jinping inspected COVID-19 prevention and control work in Beijing. On March 2, he visited the scientists and researchers working against the coronavirus in the capital city.
On March 10, China’s president went to Wuhan, the main battleground, to inspect the situation there. He visited the Huoshenshan Hospital and the Donghu Xincheng Community, where he greeted front-line medical workers, PLA commanders and soldiers, community workers, police officers, grassroots officials, officials assigned from higher levels, volunteers, patients and residents. He encouraged them to fight with confidence and win the battle against the epidemic. During his visit to the residential quarters, the president waved to the residents undergoing home quarantine and encouraged them to “join the effort and fight together.” Knowing that local Wuhan people have a liking for fresh fish, he urged local officials to ensure a good supply. Xi praised the healthcare workers as “the most admirable people” in the new era, and expressed deep gratitude from the Party and the whole nation to the Wuhan people.
President Xi chaired a teleconference after the field inspection. It was the third time he had “met” with officials from across Hubei Province in this way after a teleconference to coordinate national epidemic prevention and control and economic and social development on February 23, and another on poverty elimination on March 6.
Xi told the conference that the trend in epidemic containment in Hubei and Wuhan was positive. Initial progress had been made in stabilizing the situation and turning the tide. However, the task remained arduous. He requested that people be sober-minded, remain alert, maintain their efforts and continue to treat epidemic prevention and control as their top priority and their most important task. All measures were to be implemented down to the last detail, to defend Wuhan and Hubei and win the battle.
Xi pointed out that the response to the epidemic would be a big test of China’s governance system and capacity. There would be experience to be drawn and lessons to be learned. People should take a long-term view and work swiftly to address shortcomings in the governance system, so as to consolidate the institutional defenses of health and public safety. Urban governance and urban and rural community management would have to be improved. People should develop “full-cycle management” awareness, and explore new ways of modernizing the governance of mega cities.
 广大医务工作者
新冠肺炎疫情发生后,广大医务工作者毅然告别家人,白衣执甲、逆行出征、全力救治患者,展现了救死扶伤、医者仁心的崇高精神。习近平在武汉考察时对奋战在一线的医务工作者给予高度评价,称赞他们是新时代最可爱的人,是光明的使者、希望的使者,是最美的天使,是真正的英雄!
习近平多次作出重要指示,对参与疫情防控工作的医务人员送去关爱和鼓励。他强调,医务人员是战胜疫情的中坚力量,务必高度重视对他们的保护、关心、爱护。要关心关爱一线医务人员,落实防护物资、生活物资保障和防护措施,统筹安排轮休,加强心理疏导,落实工资待遇、临时性工作补助、卫生防疫津贴待遇,完善激励机制,尽心尽力帮助他们解除后顾之忧,使他们始终保持昂扬斗志、旺盛精力,持续健康投入抗疫斗争。
据统计,抗疫期间,人民解放军、中央和国家部委、各省区市共派出340多支医疗队、42000余名医务人员驰援武汉。随着疫情防控形势逐步转好,完成救助任务的各地驰援医疗队将分批离开武汉、平安归家。一张描绘着“白衣战士”背影、写着“谢谢你们,为我们拼过命”的海报刷屏网络,道出了湖北和武汉人民的真切心声。
Medical Workers
After the outbreak of COVID-19, a vast army of medical workers who had bid farewell to their loved ones put themselves in harm’s way. As warriors in white, they devoted every effort to save patients. Xi Jinping spoke highly of the medical workers on the front line, calling them “the most admirable people” of the new era, and described them as messengers of brightness and hope, most beautiful angels, and true heroes.
Xi Jinping issued instructions on several occasions about care for the medical workers fighting against the epidemic. He emphasized that medical workers are the core of the battle forces, and they should be well protected and given full support. The front-line medics must have access to sufficient protective equipment and daily necessities, and have rest days in rotation and psychological counseling. He required that the financial package, additional subsidies, and epidemic prevention allowances for medical staff should be delivered in full, that incentive mechanisms be further improved, and that any worries be addressed, so that they would stay strong and healthy in fighting the epidemic.
During the fight, the PLA, central ministries and commissions, and provinces and equivalent administrative units altogether dispatched more than 340 medical teams consisting of over 42,000 healthcare workers to aid Hubei. As the situation improved, the medical teams completed their mission and withdrew in an orderly manner. A poster depicting the backs of the “soldiers in white” with the words “Thank you for fighting for us” went viral on the internet, as it voiced the heartfelt gratitude of the people of Wuhan and Hubei.
解放军指战员

新冠疫情发生后,人民解放军坚决贯彻中共中央决策部署,迅速启动联防联控工作机制,紧急抽组精兵强将奔赴疫情防控第一线,成为抗疫战线不可或缺的重要力量。习近平在2月23日召开的统筹推进新冠肺炎疫情防控和经济社会发展工作部署会议上指出,人民解放军指战员闻令而动、敢打硬仗,展现了人民子弟兵忠于党、忠于人民的政治品格。
若有战,召必至。在中共中央统一指挥下,全军一万余名医护人员火线驰援,全力投入抗疫一线救治,第一时间批量接收患者,第一时间进入隔离病区,第一时间诊治危重病人。武警部队平均每天动用1000多名兵力、100余台车辆,协助地方疫情防控部门担负医疗物资调运卸载、防疫洗消和警戒值守等任务。各省军区(警备区)出动民兵配合地方完成外来人员管理、场所消毒、警戒执勤、物资运输、防疫宣传等任务。
“是军人,就要随时上战场!”从加强领导指挥到火速驰援武汉,从全力救治患者到做好综合保障,从组织应急科研攻关到加强人员物资投送,人民解放军再次展现了人民至上的硬核力量:哪里有危难,哪里就有共和国军人在冲锋;哪里有需要,哪里就有人民子弟兵在奉献。
PLA Commanders and Soldiers
After the outbreak of the coronavirus, the PLA resolutely implemented the decisions and orders of the CPC Central Committee, and promptly launched a joint prevention and control mechanism. Emergency teams were dispatched to the front line, becoming an indispensable force in the fight against the epidemic.
At a meeting held on February 23 to organize nationwide epidemic control and economic and social development, Xi Jinping pointed out that the PLA commanders and soldiers had answered the country’s call. They had the courage to fight a tough battle, which demonstrated the political character of the people’s army and their loyalty to the Party and the people.
“Should war break out, the PLA is ready to fight when the call comes.” Under the unified command of the CPC Central Committee, more than 10,000 PLA medical staff rushed to the front line and applied themselves to saving lives. They were among the first to start receiving patients and treating the seriously ill in the isolated wards. Over 1,000 troops and 100 vehicles were mobilized every day to assist the local epidemic prevention and control departments in transporting and unloading medical supplies, cleaning and disinfecting, and staffing guard posts. Militias were dispatched by provincial military commands and garrison commands to assist local authorities in managing visitors, disinfecting public places, exercising vigilance, delivering goods and materials, communicating epidemic information to the public and other tasks.
“Soldiers are always ready for battle!” From strengthening leadership to rushing to aid Wuhan, from treating the ill to providing comprehensive support, from organizing emergency-related scientific research to adding personnel and material transportation capacity, the PLA once again demonstrated the sheer force of putting people first: Where there is an emergency, there will be the pioneering people’s army; where there is a need, there will be the dedicated people’s army.
社区工作者
抗击疫情有两个阵地,一个是医院救死扶伤阵地,一个是社区防控阵地。习近平在北京市调研指导新型冠状病毒肺炎疫情防控工作时强调,社区是疫情联防联控的第一线,也是外防输入、内防扩散最有效的防线。把社区这道防线守住,就能有效切断疫情扩散蔓延的渠道。
在湖北武汉考察疫情防控期间,习近平走进东湖新城社区,与社区防控队伍亲切交流。他指出,上面千条线、下面一根针,群众大事小事都在社区,大家就是临时的“小巷总理”。在抗击疫情的斗争中,社区工作者们克服了人员不够、资源不足、条件艰苦、防护措施不完善等各种困难,始终坚守着城市的第一道防线。疫情期间,武汉的社区全部实行网格化管理,网格员、下沉干部、志愿者、楼栋长等组成了一个个小组为社区居民服务:电话组负责接听居民热线,为居民答疑解难;报表组跟踪监控居民健康情况,每日电话问询;采购组则为居民买菜送药等。随着疫情联防联控工作的推进,全国有许多社区工作者、志愿者每天为居家隔离的居民送去生活必需品,随访健康状况,为居民提供引导就医、转诊、咨询等服务。他们的无私奉献,成为疫情防控中的动人风景,不断筑牢着疫情防控的“社区防线”。
Community Workers
There are two fronts in the battle against the epidemic: the hospital, and the community – the life-saving front, and the epidemic prevention and control front. When inspecting epidemic prevention and control work in Beijing, Xi Jinping emphasized that communities are the vanguard of joint prevention and control, and also an effective defense line against inbound infections and intra-city/region transmission. We would effectively curb the spread if we held firm the defense line in the communities.
During his field visit in Wuhan, Xi visited Donghu Xincheng Community and talked with community workers. He called community workers “temporary prime ministers of the alleys,” who had to handle all matters relating to people’s lives.
In the battle against the epidemic, the community workers overcame a range of difficulties such as insufficient manpower, limited resources, testing conditions, and imperfect protective measures, and remained steadfast as the city’s front line of defense. As all the communities in Wuhan were under grid-based management, grid managers, officials assigned from higher levels, volunteers, and apartment complex coordinators formed different groups to serve the residents. There were telephone communication groups responsible for answering hotline questions for residents, report groups tracking and monitoring residents’ health status with daily telephone inquiries, and purchasing groups buying food and medicines for the residents in need.
A large number of community workers and volunteers across the country delivered necessities to self-isolated residents at home on a daily basis, followed up their health conditions, and helped residents see doctors, transfer to hospitals or arrange consultations. Their dedication shored up a strong defense line in the communities.
公安干警
新冠肺炎疫情发生以来,全国公安机关坚决贯彻落实习近平总书记重要指示精神和党中央决策部署,全警动员、全力以赴投入战疫情、防风险、保安全、护稳定各项工作,广大公安民警、辅警不畏艰险、不怕牺牲,坚守岗位、英勇奋战,全力投入到疫情防控和维护稳定工作。
同时,公安部科学调配警力,组织省市县三级公安机关按照15%、20%、30%的比例抽调下沉34.2万余名警力支援基层一线。他们不怕疲劳、连续作战,用生命护卫人民、维护安全。截至4月2日,全国共有60名公安民警和35名辅警牺牲在抗击疫情和维护安全稳定第一线,其中20名公安民警被追授为全国公安系统二级英雄模范称号。
“疫情当前,警察不退”。抗击疫情期间,广大公安干警在做好自身防疫工作的同时,全力配合做好社会面疫情防控工作,依法打击整治影响疫情防控和社会稳定的违法犯罪活动,着力做好复工复产依法保障工作,为推动全国疫情防控形势持续向好作出了重要贡献。
Police Officers
The public security organs across China resolutely implemented the instructions issued by President Xi Jinping and the decisions and plans made by the CPC Central Committee. The whole police force was mobilized to join the battle. They did everything in their power to combat the epidemic, guard against risks, and ensure safety and stability. The public security officers and police support officers confronted difficulties head on and remained steadfast at their posts, devoting all their efforts to tackling the virus and maintaining stability.
The public security organs at provincial, municipal and county levels each dispatched 15%, 20%, and 30% of their police forces to support communities. In total, 342,000-plus police officers worked tirelessly on the front line, risking their lives to protect the people and maintain security. As of April 2, 60 police officers and 35 police support officers had sacrificed their lives, and 20 of them were posthumously honored as heroes.
“So long as the epidemic does not recede, the police will not retreat.” In the war against COVID-19, a vast number of police officers made a great contribution to society-wide prevention and control. They acted to suppress criminal and other unlawful activities that hampered the campaign against the virus or undermined social stability, and they went to great lengths to support the resumption of productive work.
基层干部
基层是防疫前线,也是复工复产第一线。为最大限度发挥基层防控的力量和作用,习近平在2月3日召开的中央政治局常委会会议上强调,在疫情防控工作中,要坚决反对形式主义、官僚主义,让基层干部把更多精力投入到疫情防控第一线。
基层干部没有警服、救援服、隔离衣,只有最普通的口罩,他们没有执法证、资格证,只有一张张群众熟悉的面孔,他们既担负着基层管理,又是当地群众的“跑腿员”“广播员”“安全员”。疫情期间,广大基层干部坚持想群众之所想、急群众之所急,奔走在大街小巷、田间地头,深入细致开展疫情摸排,组织疑似病例隔离观察,协调防护物资分配,宣传普及防疫知识,用扎实行动保障人民群众生活,当好人民群众的“贴心人”。
Grassroots Officials
Grassroots units are at the forefront of the battle against the epidemic and getting people back to work. At the meeting held on February 3 by the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, Xi Jinping emphasized opposition to bureaucratism and the practice of formalities for formalities’ sake, so that grassroots officials can devote fully to epidemic prevention and control.
Grassroots officials have no protective suits to wear. They only have masks. They have no power of law enforcement. They are just familiar faces to the locals. They are responsible for managing the communities, and serve as the “errand runner,” “broadcaster” and “security officer” of the people.
During the outbreak, they were kept busy checking every block for epidemic screening. They arranged medical observation of suspected cases, coordinated the distribution of protective equipment, and spread information about epidemic prevention to the general public. As “trustworthy friends of the people,” they safeguarded the people with concrete actions.
下沉干部
疫情防控是一场人民战争,构筑人民防线,守住社区防线,就能有效阻止疫情扩散蔓延。2020年2月10日,习近平在北京调研指导新冠肺炎疫情防控工作时强调,把防控力量向社区下沉,加强社区各项防控措施的落实,使所有社区成为疫情防控的坚强堡垒。这一要求,吹响了以社区为重点抗击疫情的“集结号”。
社区防控点多面广,情况复杂多样,要做好地毯式追踪、网格化管理,又要照应居民合理必需的要求,保证社区有序运转,任务十分艰巨。为增强社区防控合力,严密社区防线,全国各地党政机关干部纷纷走出机关,分批下沉社区,极大缓解了社区联防联控中的人手紧张压力,为开展精细化防控注入力量。下沉干部深入社区街道,积极配合社区干部做好人员排查、测量体温、消毒隔离、宣传引导、后勤保障等各项防控工作,为社区居民筑牢“防疫墙”。下沉干部与广大社区工作人员、公安干警、基层干部和志愿者们并肩作战,形成了有序参与联防联控、群防群治的强大力量。
Officials Designated from Higher Levels
Epidemic prevention and control was a war that involved everyone in the country. As long as a people’s defense line was put in place and communities were well defended, the spread of the virus could be effectively curbed.
While inspecting the epidemic prevention work in Beijing on February 10, Xi Jinping emphasized the need to empower communities to implement prevention and control measures, making every community a strong bastion against the epidemic. His request sounded a rallying cry to communities in the battle against the virus.
The prevention and control work in the communities is complicated. It is an arduous task to do blanket tracking on cases and exercise grid-based management, while attending to the reasonable and essential needs of residents and keeping things running in an orderly way.
In order to create synergy and strengthen the community defense line, numerous Party and government officials were designated to work in the communities. Their arrival provided a significant manpower boost. They assisted community workers in screening local residents, checking temperatures, disinfection and isolation, publicity and guidance, and logistics support. They worked side by side with local community workers, public security officers, grassroots officials and volunteers, forming a powerful inter-agency force to carry out society-wide actions.
志愿者
新冠肺炎疫情发生后,广大志愿者积极有序参与疫情防控工作。 据不完全统计,在总人口约1000万的武汉,有5万余名志愿者支援抗疫第一线。“疫情不散,我们不退”,这是全国抗疫志愿者的共同心声。
这些志愿者中,有党员、退役军人、学生、快递员和普通百姓等,他们年龄不一,性别不同,来自各个岗位甚至不同国家,坚守在高风险、高强度的防控一线,真诚奉献、不辞辛劳:主动组建团队,接送一线医护人员通勤回家,担当“生命的摆渡人”;招募集结社区志愿者,24小时待命运送发热居民就诊,为隔离居民买菜送药,协助社区防控工作;发起专项募捐行动筹集善款,协调采购防护物资并送往一线;发动高校学生,为一线医护人员子女学习提供免费在线辅导和帮助;报名加入武汉方舱医院播音员队伍,为医护人员和患者朗诵文章、缓释心情等。广大志愿者用点点滴滴的努力疗愈着心爱的家园,成为战“疫”时刻一束温暖的光。
Volunteers
According to partial statistics, more than 50,000 volunteers joined the battle against the epidemic in Wuhan, a city with a population of 10 million. “We will not retreat till the epidemic has receded.” This was the pledge of all volunteers across the country.
Among these volunteers were CPC members, ex-servicemen, students and deliverymen. From all ages, both genders, different walks of life, and many countries, they were totally dedicated to the high-risk and high-intensity work on the front line.
Many volunteers drove front-line doctors and nurses to and from work, or served as a 24-hour standby transportation service carrying residents with fever for medical treatment. Many helped self-isolated residents to buy food and medicines. Some launched targeted fund-raising programs, coordinated the purchase of protective equipment, and delivered it to the forefront; some mobilized college students to offer free online tutoring for the children of front-line medical workers. Some volunteers acted as announcers in Wuhan’s temporary hospitals keeping the patients and medical workers informed. The efforts of the vast army of volunteers offered warmth and light in the darkness of the battle against the virus.
患者群众
新冠肺炎疫情发生以来,中国医护人员尽己所能、全力以赴救治病患。截至3月底,新冠肺炎患者中年龄最大的治愈患者103岁,最小的仅出生17天。2020年3月10日,习近平在湖北省考察疫情防控工作时对正在接受治疗的患者送去慰问,鼓励患者群众树立必胜信心,保持乐观向上的精神状态,主动听从医嘱,积极配合治疗。
新冠肺炎救治工作中,重症、危重症的救治是重中之重,也是降低病死率的关键。面对这一最艰难的关隘,中国医护人员对抗重症的步履不停,通过组建院士巡诊团队,成立联合专家组,七次修订优化救治方案,组织插管小分队,推广中医药临床使用等多项措施,提高治愈率、降低病亡率。在武汉,11家收治重症、危重症定点医院的总床位达到9000多张,来自全国90多支国家级、省级的医疗队的13000名重症专业医务人员参与新冠肺炎重症的救治工作,接近全国重症医务人员资源的10%。截至3月31日,全国累计治愈出院病例超7.6万例,治愈率为93.5%;其中,湖北全省累计治愈患者63000多例,治愈率超93%。
Patients
After the outbreak of COVID-19, Chinese medical workers did all in their power to treat the patients. By the end of March, the oldest COVID-19 patient cured was 103 years, and the youngest only 17 days. On March 10, during his visit to Hubei, Xi Jinping expressed sympathy to patients, tried to boost their morale, and asked them to follow their doctor’s advice for the best possible chance of early recovery.
In the treatment of COVID-19, severe and critical cases – the key to bringing down the fatality rate – were given top priority. Chinese medical personnel worked out many different ways to treat the most severe cases, with the goal of raising the cure rate and lowering the fatality rate. These included setting up a visiting team of academicians, forming an expert group, updating the treatment plan seven times, organizing an emergency intubation team for COVID-19 patients, and promoting clinical use of traditional Chinese medicines.
In Wuhan, the number of beds in 11 hospitals designated for the treatment of severe and critical cases exceeded 9,000. More than 13,000 intensive care health professionals from 90-plus national and provincial medical teams participated in the treatment of severe cases, accounting for nearly 10% of the national intensive care personnel resources. By March 31, more than 76,000 patients had been cured and discharged, with a cure rate of 93.5%. Among them, more than 63,000 were in Hubei, with a cure rate of over 93%.
普通民众
在抗击疫情中,全国人民群众在党的科学部署与领导下,做到不慌乱,理性认知疫情,科学防控疫情。2020年3月10日,习近平在湖北省考察疫情防控工作时指出,要紧紧依靠人民群众,充分发动人民群众,提高群众自我服务、自我防护能力。他要求,保障好群众基本生活,畅通“最后一公里”。
在这场全民战“疫”中,广大群众自觉居家、减少外出,通过网络在线拜年、工作、教学、采购等方式开启“宅生活”,积极配合社区防控,共同努力守护来之不易的抗疫成效。广大群众在做好自身的防疫工作同时,也展现了大爱精神,纷纷通过各种形式与途径支持武汉以及湖北其他地区。
3月23日,中央应对新冠肺炎疫情工作领导小组对疫情防控形势作出最新判断:以武汉为主战场的全国本土疫情传播已基本阻断,疫情防控取得阶段性重要成效。这是全国上下同舟共济、抗击疫情的“成绩单”,为全党全军全国各族人民继续团结奋斗、最终战胜疫情注入“强心剂”。
Ordinary People
Under the Party’s leadership, the nation did not panic in the face of COVID-19. Instead it developed a rational understanding of the virus, and adopted a science-based approach to epidemic prevention and control. During his visit to Hubei, Xi Jinping highlighted the need to rely on the people, mobilize them, and improve their ability to serve and protect themselves. He requested that the basic needs of the people be ensured and “last mile” service problems be solved.
To pursue this nationwide war against the epidemic, the people voluntarily reduced outings, and adopted a “home-based” lifestyle by doing almost everything online, from sending New Year greetings, to working, teaching and shopping. They supported the community work in this way, in a joint effort to safeguard the hard-won achievements of epidemic prevention and control. While doing their own parts to combat the epidemic, the general public also assisted Wuhan and other parts of Hubei through a variety of means, demonstrating a spirit of true comradeship.
On March 23, the Central Leading Group for COVID-19 Prevention and Control made an assessment of the situation: The spread of the epidemic in China, with Wuhan as the main battleground, had been basically contained, which represented a milestone. This impressive “test report” was the result of a concerted effort on the part of the whole nation. It was also a strong boost to the Party, the PLA and the people of China, inspiring them to continue to work together for the ultimate victory over the epidemic.
Information on COVID-19 Prevention and Control
防控知识
正确使用口罩
口罩是预防呼吸道传染病的重要防线,可以降低新冠病毒感染风险。口罩不仅可以防止病人喷射飞沫,降低飞沫量和喷射速度,还可阻挡含病毒的飞沫核,防止佩戴者吸入。
新冠肺炎疫情发生以来,口罩在疫情防控中起着重要作用。2020年1月30日,国家卫生健康委印发《预防新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎口罩使用指南》。2月5日,国务院应对新冠肺炎疫情联防联控机制印发《预防新型冠状病毒感染口罩选择与使用技术指引》。3月17日,根据疫情防控形势向好和复工复产需要,联防联控机制修订形成《公众科学戴口罩指引》,从普通公众、特定场所人员、职业暴露人员以及重点人员进行分类,并对不同场景下戴口罩提出科学指引的建议。
口罩佩戴的基本原则是科学合理佩戴、规范使用、有效防护。根据相关指南、指引建议,在非疫区空旷且通风场所不需要佩戴口罩,进入人员密集或密闭公共场所需要佩戴口罩。在疫情高发地区空旷且通风场所建议佩戴一次性使用医用口罩;进入人员密集或密闭公共场所,佩戴医用外科口罩或颗粒物防护口罩。特殊人群如可能接触疑似或确诊病例的高危人群,建议佩戴医用防护口罩(N95及以上级别)并佩戴护目镜。
佩戴医用外科口罩时,鼻夹侧朝上,深色面朝外,上下拉开褶皱,使口罩覆盖口、鼻及下颌;按捏鼻夹,使之贴紧鼻梁,防止侧漏。佩戴口罩前按规程洗手,佩戴时避免接触口罩内侧。口罩佩戴2-4小时更换一次,如口罩脏污、变形、损坏、有异味时也要及时更换。口罩摘下后应将接触口鼻的一面朝里叠好,如需再次使用,可悬挂在洁净、干燥通风处,或将其放置在清洁、透气的纸袋中;如不再使用,应放入固定丢弃处,避免交叉感染。儿童不宜佩戴成人口罩,家长要帮助儿童正确佩戴口罩,并随时关注佩戴情况,年龄极小的婴幼儿不能佩戴口罩,易引起窒息。
Using Facemasks Properly
Facemasks are important for preventing the spread of infectious respiratory diseases and lowering the risk of COVID-19 infections. Facemasks can prevent patients from spraying droplets, reduce the amount and speed of droplets, and protect the wearers from inhaling the nucleus of the virus via droplets.
Facemasks have proved effective in preventing and controlling COVID-19. On January 30, the NHC published a Guide on Facemask Usage Against Novel Coronavirus-infected Pneumonia. On February 5, the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council published Technical Guidelines for Selecting and Using Facemasks Against Novel Coronavirus Infection.
On March 17, as disease prevention and control gained effect and work resumed, the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism published a Guide on Proper Usage of Facemasks by the Public, providing advice for wearing facemasks under different conditions for the general public, people in specific areas, people with occupational exposure, and key population groups.
Facemasks should be worn and used properly to ensure effective protection. According to relevant guidelines, in areas not affected by the disease, facemasks are unnecessary in open and well-ventilated places, but people should wear facemasks when entering crowded or enclosed public places. In high-risk areas, people should wear disposable medical masks in open and well-ventilated places, and wear surgical masks or respirators of grade N95 when entering crowded or enclosed public places. Special groups who may come into contact with suspected or confirmed cases should wear goggles and respirators of grade N95 or above.
When wearing a surgical mask, hold the mask with the nose strip on top and the dark-colored side facing outward, pull the mask over the mouth, nose and chin, and pinch the nose strip to conform to the shape of the nose.
Wash hands according to procedures before wearing a mask and avoid touching the inside of the mask.
Replace the mask every two to four hours, and change the mask when it is dirty, contaminated, distorted, or damaged, or when it smells unpleasant.
Take off the mask with the side touching the nose and mouth folded inward, hang the mask in clean, dry, ventilated place or put it in a clean and ventilated paper bag for reuse.
Dispose of the mask in a specific garbage bin to avoid cross infection.
Children should not wear facemasks for adults, and parents should help their children wear facemasks properly.
Babies cannot wear facemasks, as they can pose suffocation risks.
尽量减少外出活动
每个人是自己健康第一责任人。新冠肺炎疫情期间,除了政府和相关部门采取的防控措施外,每位公民做好个人防护,减少不必要的外出、聚集等行为,是对自己和他人健康负责,也是维护公众安全的应尽义务。
根据国家卫生健康委发布的《新型冠状病毒肺炎诊疗方案(试行第七版)》,目前所见传染源主要是新型冠状病毒感染的患者。无症状感染者也可能成为传染源。经呼吸道飞沫和密切接触传播是主要的传播途径。人群普遍易感。在备餐和聚餐过程中,人群相互之间都是密切接触者,咳嗽、打喷嚏甚至近距离交谈产生的飞沫,可直接传播给整个聚会人群,极易造成疾病传播,为疾病流行提供有利条件。因此,减少人员出行,避免参加集会、聚会是阻断疫情的重要措施。
加强个人防护,还要减少到公共场所活动,尤其是一些人员密集、空气流动性差的公共场所,如商场、餐厅、影院、车站、机场、码头、展览馆等。这是因为,公共场所人员多、流动量大、人员组成复杂,一旦有病毒携带者,很容易造成人与人之间的传播,进而引发病毒感染和疫情扩散。
Minimizing Outings
Every person has the primary responsibility for their own health. During the COVID-19 epidemic, on top of the prevention and control measures taken by the government and relevant agencies, every citizen was responsible for their own and others’ health. They were required to exercise due diligence for public security by protecting themselves and reducing non-essential outings and gatherings.
The Diagnosis and Treatment Protocol for COVID-19 (Trial Version 7) published by the NHC, provided the following information. Patients infected by the novel coronavirus are the main source of infection. Asymptomatic coronavirus carriers are a possible source of infection. Major channels of transmission are respiratory droplets and close contact with infected people. All are vulnerable to COVID-19. When preparing meals or dining together, people come into close contact with each other. Droplets spread by coughing, sneezing and even talking in close proximity can directly transmit to the whole group, which can easily spread the disease and facilitate the prevalence of the disease. Therefore, reducing outings and avoiding gatherings and parties are important measures to interrupt the transmission of the disease.
People should strengthen personal protection by reducing visits to public places, especially locations that are crowded or poorly ventilated, such as shopping malls, restaurants, cinemas, stations, airports, wharves and exhibition centers. These public places are crowded with people from different locations and subject to high population mobility. It is easy for virus carriers to cause people-to-people transmission, incur infections, and spread the disease.
保持手卫生
除了外出佩戴口罩,洗手也是预防传染病最简单、最有效的措施之一。日常工作、生活中,人们的手不断接触到被病毒、细菌污染的物品,手上的病原体可以通过手和口、眼、鼻的粘膜接触进入人体。洗手可以简单有效地切断这一传播途径,有效降低感染新冠病毒的风险。
为避免病毒经手传播,应尽量减少接触公共场所的公共物品和部位,同时注意勤洗手。以下情况应及时洗手:外出归来,戴口罩前及摘下口罩后,接触过泪液、鼻涕、痰液和唾液后,咳嗽打喷嚏用手遮挡后,护理患者后,准备食物前,用餐前,如厕后,接触公共设施或物品后(如扶手、门柄、电梯按钮、钱币、快递等物品),接触婴幼儿及哺乳喂食前,处理婴幼儿粪便后,接触动物或处理动物粪便后等。如不确定手是否清洁时,避免用手接触口鼻眼;打喷嚏或咳嗽时,用手肘衣服遮住口鼻。
正确的洗手方法是:使用流动水和肥皂或洗手液洗手,每次洗手应揉搓20秒以上,确保手心、手指、手背、指缝、指甲缝、手腕等处均被清洗干净。不方便用流动水洗手时,可使用含酒精的免洗洗手液。
Case Fatality Rate
In addition to wearing facemasks when going out, washing hands is also one of the simplest and most effective ways to prevent infectious disease. In daily work and life, people may touch items contaminated by viruses and bacteria, and pathogens on their hands can get into their bodies through the mucosae of mouth, eyes and nose. Washing hands can easily and effectively interrupt transmission through mucosae and reduce the risk of COVID-19 infections.
To avoid transmission of the virus through contact with hands, people should avoid touching items and facilities at public places and wash hands frequently. They should wash hands under the following conditions:

* before putting on facemasks;
* before preparing and eating food;
* before touching, feeding or breastfeeding babies;
* after returning from outside;
* after taking off facemasks;
* after touching tears, nasal discharge, sputum and saliva;
* after coughing and sneezing;
* after caring for patients;
* after using the toilet;
* after touching public facilities or items (such as handrails, doorknobs, elevator buttons, coins and express parcels);
* after cleaning baby stools; and
* after touching animals or cleaning their stools.

People should avoid touching mouth, nose and eyes when not sure whether their hands are clean, and sneeze or cough into the elbow.
The correct method of hand washing is: Wash the hands with soap or liquid soap and running water, rub the hands for over 20 seconds each time, and make sure the palms, fingers, the back of the hands, nails, and the wrists and all other parts of the hands are cleaned. If running water is not available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer instead.
健康监测与就医
发热、咳嗽和呼吸困难可能是呼吸道感染或其他严重疾病导致的症状。应密切关注健康状况,如果出现发热、咳嗽等症状,应注意戴口罩等个人防护,及时就近就医。
公民应主动做好个人与家庭成员的健康监测,尽可能减少与有呼吸道疾病症状(如发烧、咳嗽或打喷嚏等)的人密切接触,自觉发热时要主动测量体温。家中有儿童的,可早晚摸试其额头,如有发热及时为其测量体温。
发生以下两种情况时应及时到当地指定医疗机构进行排查诊治:一是出现发热(腋下温度≥37.3℃)、咳嗽、气促等急性呼吸道感染症状;二是有武汉及周边地区,或其他有病例报告社区的旅行史或居住史,或发病前14天内曾接触过来自武汉及周边地区,或其他有病例报告社区的旅行史或居住史的发热伴呼吸道症状的患者,或出现聚集性发病。
前往医院的路上,应佩戴医用外科口罩或N95口罩,尽量避免乘坐公共交通工具,路上打开车窗。在路上和到医院时,尽可能离其他人至少1米距离。就医时,应如实详细讲述患病情况和就医过程,告知医生近期旅行居住史、人员和动物接触史等,配合医生开展相关调查。
Health Monitoring and Going to Hospital
Fever, coughing, and breathing difficulties can be induced by respiratory infections and other severe diseases. People should closely monitor their health, adopt personal protection measures like wearing facemasks, and go to see a doctor quickly when they display symptoms like fever and coughing.
Citizens should monitor their own health and that of their family members, minimize close contact with people who have symptoms of respiratory diseases (such as fever, coughing or sneezing), and check their temperature if they feel feverish. If there are children, parents can touch their foreheads in the morning and evening, and check their temperature if they seem to have a fever.
People should go to local designated medical institutions for a health check, diagnosis and treatment should either of the following conditions apply: (1) they are displaying symptoms of respiratory infections such as fever (with axillary temperature ≥37.3℃), coughing and shortness of breath; or (2) they have traveled to or lived in Wuhan or its surrounding areas, or communities where confirmed cases have been reported, or have had contact, within 14 days before feeling ill, with patients who have fever and symptoms of respiratory infections and have traveled to or lived in Wuhan or surrounding areas or communities where confirmed cases have been reported, or have been involved in clustered cases.
On the way to see a doctor, people should wear a surgical mask or respirator of grade N95, avoid taking public transportation, and open the window of the vehicle they take. They should keep at least 1 meter from others on the way to and after arriving at the hospital. They should tell the doctor in detail about their condition, their recent travel and residence history, and their contact with people and animals, and cooperate with the doctor in all relevant investigations.
保持良好卫生和健康习惯
在新冠肺炎疫情期间,做好防护措施的同时,保持良好卫生和健康习惯可以有效降低感染风险。国家卫生健康委在2020年1月27日发布的《新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎防控公众预防指南汇编》中介绍了保持良好卫生和健康习惯的主要做法:居室勤开窗,经常通风;家庭成员不共用毛巾,保持家居、餐具清洁,勤晒衣被;不随地吐痰,口鼻分泌物用纸巾包好,弃置于有盖垃圾箱内;注意营养,适度运动;不要接触、购买和食用野生动物(即野味),尽量避免前往售卖活体动物(禽类、海产品、野生动物等)的市场;家庭备置体温计、医用外科口罩或N95口罩、家用消毒用品等物资。
Maintaining Good Hygiene and Health Habits
During the outbreak of the COVID-19, taking good protective measures and maintaining good hygiene and health habits can effectively reduce the risk of infection. On January 27, the NHC released a Guidebook on Public Prevention of Novel Coronavirus-infected Pneumonia, which suggested the following ways to maintain good hygiene and health habits:

* Frequently open the windows of your house for better ventilation;
* Do not share towels with your family members;
* Keep your home and tableware clean;
* Expose your clothes and quilts regularly to sunlight;
* Do not spit;
* Wrap your oral and nasal secretions in tissue and throw them in a covered dustbin;
* Balance your nutrition and exercise moderately;
* Do not touch, buy and eat wild animals or game, and avoid visiting the market that sells live animals (poultry, seafood or wild animals);
* Have a thermometer, surgical or N95 masks, and domestic disinfectants at home.
不接触、购买和食用野生动物
野生动物是指所有非经人工饲养而生活于自然环境下的各种动物。许多野生动物带有多种病毒,如果人与之接触,可能将病毒传播给人类。如艾滋病、莱姆病、埃博拉病毒、亨德拉病毒、猴痘、SARS、MERS以及新冠病毒等,都是通过野生动物传播到人类。
中国早在1988年就颁布了《中华人民共和国野生动物保护法》,规定禁止出售、购买、利用国家重点保护野生动物及其制品,禁止生产、经营使用国家重点保护野生动物及其制品制作的食品,或者使用没有合法来源证明的非国家重点保护野生动物及其制品制作的食品。
新冠肺炎疫情发生以来,滥食野生动物的突出问题及其对公共卫生安全构成的巨大隐患,引起社会广泛关注。2020年2月24日,第十三届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十六次全体会议通过全面禁止非法野生动物交易、革除滥食野生动物陋习、切实保障人民群众生命安全的决定,为维护公共卫生安全和生态安全,保障人民群众生命健康安全提供有力的立法保障。为了人类健康,个人不要接触、捕猎、贩卖、购买、加工、食用野生动物。
No Touching, Buying and Eating of Wild Animals.
Wild animals refer to all animals that live in a natural environment without artificial rearing. Many wild animals carry multiple viruses that can be transmitted to humans through contact. Viruses like AIDS, Lyme disease, Ebola virus, Hendra virus, monkey pox, SARS, MERS, and novel coronavirus can spread to humans through wild animals.
China promulgated the Law on the Protection of Wildlife in 1988, which prohibits the sale, purchase and utilization of wildlife that is under special state protection and their products, and prohibits the production and sale of food made of wildlife that is under special state protection and associated products, or of food made of wildlife that is not under special state protection and its products without proof of legal source.
Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic, the prominent problem of eating wild animals and the huge potential danger to public health have aroused widespread concern. On February 24, 2020, the 16th plenary meeting of the Standing Committee of the 13th National People’s Congress decided to thoroughly ban the illegal trade in wildlife and eliminate the dangerous practice of eating wild animals, so as to effectively protect the eco-environment, public health, and human lives. People must not touch, hunt, sell, buy, process, or eat wild animals.
家庭防控
家庭是社会的细胞,也是抗击疫情的基础力量和重要防线。目前诸多新冠肺炎病例中,家庭聚集性感染的特征较为突出,这是因为多人长时间聚集在同一空间,很容易造成病毒传播扩散,出现“一人感染,一家传染”的情况。
家庭防控主要指为防止疫情扩散,以家庭为单位,在社区的指导下,各自做好自我管理和家庭管理。国家卫生健康委在2020年1月27日发布的《新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎防控公众预防指南汇编》中介绍了“家庭新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎预防指南”,提供了适用于家庭场所的日常预防建议:一是避免去疾病正在流行的地区;二是减少到人员密集、尤其是空气流动性差的公共场所活动三是不要接触、购买和使用野生动物,避免前往售卖活体动物的市场,禽肉蛋要充分煮熟后食用;四是居室保持清洁,勤开窗通风;五是随时保持手卫生六是外出佩戴口罩七是保持良好卫生和健康习惯八是主动做好个人及家庭成员的健康监测九是准备常用物资,如体温计、一次性口罩、家用消毒用品等。此外,该《指南》还对家庭成员出现可疑症状时的情况提供了防控建议,强调如家庭成员出现新冠肺炎可疑症状,应及时佩戴口罩并就医;如家庭中有人被诊断为新冠肺炎患者,其他家庭成员如果经判定为密切接触者,应接受14天医学观察;患者和密切接触者应避免与无症状的其他家庭成员近距离接触;对有症状的家庭成员经常接触的地方和物品进行消毒等。
Family Prevention and Control
The family is the cell of society and an important line of defense against the epidemic. Among novel coronavirus cases, family infections are common. Gatherings of people in the same space for a long time can easily cause the virus to spread, and result in the infection of a whole family by one infected family member.
The Guidebook on Public Prevention of Novel Coronavirus-infected Pneumonia issued by the NHC made the following suggestions for family members:

* Avoid visiting areas where the disease is prevalent;
* Reduce visits to crowded public places, especially places with poor ventilation;
* Do not touch, buy and eat wild animals; avoid visiting markets that sell live animals; cook poultry, eggs and meat thoroughly;
* Keep your home clean and open windows frequently for better ventilation;
* Maintain hand hygiene;
* Wear a mask when going out;
* Keep good personal hygiene and health habits;
* Monitor the health of yourself and your family members;
* Keep necessary medical supplies at home, such as thermometer, disposable masks and domestic disinfectant.

The Guidance suggested that family members displaying suspect symptoms should put on a mask and seek prompt medical advice; when one family member is diagnosed with COVID-19, other members, if identified as close contacts, should undergo medical observation for a period of 14 days; patients and their close contacts should avoid close contact with other family members who have no symptoms; and the places where a family member with symptoms has stayed and the objects he/she frequently touches should be sterilized.
公共场所防控
公共场所是公众进行社会活动的重要载体,也是防控传染病发生流行的重点环节,公共场所卫生安全关系人民群众健康和经济社会发展。为加强疫情防控,2020年1月30日,国务院应对新冠肺炎疫情联防联控机制印发《公共场所新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎卫生防护指南》,对宾馆、商场、影院、游泳馆、博物馆、候车(机)室、办公楼等人群经常聚集活动的公共场所和工作场所的卫生防护提出措施指引和操作要求。
公共场所卫生操作方面,重点做好物体表面清洁消毒,对高频接触的物体表面(如电梯间按钮、扶手、门把手等),可用含氯消毒剂、消毒湿巾进行喷洒或擦拭;加强餐(饮)具的消毒、衣服、被褥、座椅套等纺织物及卫生洁具的清洁消毒;加强通风换气,保持场所内空气流通,首选自然风;定期清洗空调滤网,未使用空调时应关闭回风通道;确保场所内洗手设施运行正常,配备足量洗手液、速干手消毒剂或感应式手消毒设施;加强垃圾分类管理,及时收集并清运,定期对垃圾桶等垃圾盛装容器进行消毒清洁;设立应急区域,当出现疑似或确诊病例时,及时到该区域进行暂时隔离和规范处理;在场所内显著区域,开展防控健康宣教。
个人防护方面,工作人员要做好“三注意”,即注意个人卫生防护、注意手卫生、注意身体状况。流动人员要减少聚集,减少不必要的外出,如果外出应做好个人防护和手卫生,在人口较为密集的公共场所,建议佩戴医用口罩、勤洗手等;办公楼等场所要加强对来访人员健康监测和登记等工作。
Prevention and Control in Public Places
Public places are where the general public take part in social activities, therefore they are a key link in the prevention and control of infectious diseases. These places influence people’s health and economic and social development.
On January 30, the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council published a Guide on Health Protection of Novel Coronavirus-infected Pneumonia in Public Places, listing suggestions and requirements for health protection in public places and workplaces where people often gather, such as hotels, shopping malls, cinemas, swimming pools, museums, waiting rooms and lounges, and office buildings.

* To keep public places hygienic, it is important to clean and disinfect the surfaces of objects. Spray or wipe surfaces with high frequency contact (elevator buttons, handrails and door handles) with disinfectants containing chlorine and with disinfectant wipes;
* Ensure disinfection of food and drinking utensils, sanitary ware, and textiles such as clothes, bedding and seat covers;
* Ventilate rooms well, with fresh air preferred;
* Clean air conditioning filters regularly, and close the air return channel if not in use;
* Ensure normal operation of hand washing facilities and adequate hand sanitizers, quick-dry hand disinfectants or inductive hand disinfection facilities;
* Strengthen garbage classification management; ensure timely collection and removal of garbage and regular disinfection and cleaning of garbage cans and other containers;
* Set an emergency area for temporary isolation and standard treatment of suspected or confirmed cases;
* Post health education materials about epidemic prevention and control in conspicuous places.

In terms of personal protection, staff should be mindful of personal protection, hand hygiene, and physical condition. People on the move should reduce gatherings and unnecessary outings. They must make sure of personal protection and hand hygiene if going out. In crowded public places, it is recommended to wear medical masks and wash hands frequently. Health monitoring and registration of visitors shall be carried out at office buildings and other places.
公共交通工具防控
公共交通工具具有人流量大、人员来源复杂、密切接触可能性大等特点,仅仅靠采取消毒措施切断传播途径来预防疾病传播具有较大难度。因此,应通过加强人员管理、环境卫生及消毒、健康宣教等措施,保障公共交通工具上人员的安全健康。
国家卫生健康委在2020年1月27日发布的《新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎防控公众预防指南汇编》中,对飞机、火车、地铁、公共汽车和轮船等公共交通工具的卫生防护提供措施建议。1月29日,国务院应对新型冠肺炎疫情联防联控机制印发《公共交通工具消毒操作技术指南的通知》,指导汽车、火车、飞机、轮船等公共交通工具做好消毒工作,防止新冠肺炎通过交通工具传播和扩散。
公共交通工具防控建议主要包括:发生疾病流行地区的公共交通工具在岗工作人员应佩戴医用外科口罩或N95口罩,并每日做好健康监测;公共交通工具建议备置体温计、口罩等物品;增加公共交通工具清洁与消毒频次,做好清洁消毒工作记录和标识;保持公共交通工具良好的通风状态;保持车站、车厢内的卫生整洁,及时清理垃圾;做好人员工作与轮休安排,确保司乘人员得到足够休息。
Prevention and Control on Public Transportation
Public transportation involves large flows of people, diverse source of travelers, and high risks of close contact. It is difficult to prevent the spread of disease by taking only disinfection measures to cut off transmission routes. Measures such as strengthening personnel management, environmental sanitation and disinfection, and health education should be employed to ensure the safety and health of passengers.
The NHC provided recommendations on hygienic protection of public transportation such as planes, trains, subways, buses and ships in the Guidebook on Public Prevention of Novel Coronavirus-infected Pneumonia released on January 27. On January 29, the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council issued a notice on applying the Technical Guidelines for Disinfection of Public Transportation, which provided suggestions on disinfecting cars, trains, planes and ships to prevent the spread of the novel coronavirus through vehicles.
The suggestions included:

* Public transportation staff on duty in epidemic areas should wear surgical or N95 masks, and carry out daily health monitoring;
* Public transportation staff should carry thermometers, masks and other health-related items;
* Increase the frequency of cleaning and disinfection of public transportation vehicles, and keep records and traces;
* Maintain good ventilation;
* Keep stations and carriages clean and tidy, and clear garbage promptly;
* Have proper work schedules and rotating shifts to ensure staff get enough rest.
办公场所防控
办公场所防控主要指在办公区域进行的疫情防控管理。随着复工复产、人员陆续返岗,办公区域人员密度大、停留时间长、人员构成复杂,增加了办公场所的防控工作难度。国家卫生健康委在2020年1月29日发布的《新型冠状病毒防控指南(第一版)》中,提供了办公场所防控指南,即工作人员要自行健康监测,若出现新冠状病毒感染的可疑症状(包括发热、咳嗽、咽痛、胸闷、呼吸困难、乏力、恶心呕吐、腹泻、结膜炎、肌肉酸痛等),不要带病上班;若发现新型冠状病毒感染的可疑症状者,工作人员应要求其离开;公用物品及公共接触物品或部位要定期清洗和消毒;保持办公场所内空气流通;洗手间要配备足够的洗手液,确保供水设施运行正常;保持环境卫生清洁,及时清理垃圾等。
此外,各地还就疫情期间办公场所防控和工作人员防护提出措施建议。例如,建立主体责任制,明确办公场所内各单位各部门的具体职责;办公场所所在建筑的经营管理者要建立租用户名录清单,建立楼宇、院落出入口体温监测、人员登记等防控措施;建立有针对性的防控工作方案;强化员工健康监测制度;加强重点岗位重点部门的风险梳理和应对措施;优化工作流程,降低感染风险;建立弹性工作制;减少会议等不必要的人群聚集性活动;保持办公场所室内空气流通;加强日常清洁和预防性消毒措施等。
Office Prevention and Control
Office prevention and control involves epidemic prevention and control management in the workplace. As people return to work, office areas are repopulated with high densities of staff with multiple functions who are likely to be present for extended periods. This increases the difficulty of prevention and control.
The Prevention and Control Protocol for Novel Coronavirus (1st Edition), released by the NHC on January 29, provided a guide to workplace prevention and control:

* The staff should monitor their own health.
* Employees should not come to work should they experience symptoms suggestive of novel coronavirus pneumonia (such as fever, cough, pharyngalgia, chest distress, breathing difficulties, fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, conjunctivitis, and muscle soreness).
* People with symptoms indicative of coronavirus should not be admitted to the workplace.
* Regularly clean and disinfect public goods and items or elements that are frequently touched.
* Maintain indoor ventilation in the workplace;
* Ensure sufficient hand sanitizers and proper operation of water supply facilities in the washroom;
* Keep the workplace clean and tidy, and remove garbage promptly.

Various localities also adopted detailed measures for the prevention and control of office areas. These included:

* Specify responsibilities of each unit in the office area;
* The operator of the building where the office is located should draw up a list of tenants, and register visitors and check their temperatures at the building or courtyard entrance;
* Make targeted work plans for prevention and control;
* Strengthen staff health monitoring;
* Conduct risk analysis and work out counter measures for key posts and key departments;
* Optimize workflow to reduce the risk of infection;
* Adopt flexible work hours;
* Reduce unnecessary meetings and other gatherings;
* Maintain indoor ventilation;
* Reinforce daily cleaning and preventive disinfection.
养老机构防控
老年人群是新冠病毒易感高危人群,自我防护意识普遍较弱,因此,老年康复、护理、养老等机构应做好在院老年人群的防护措施。2020年1月底,国家民政部发出通知,要求各地全力做好养老机构新冠肺炎疫情防控工作,确保老年人安全健康。
根据国家卫生健康委在2020年1月29日发布的《新型冠状病毒防控指南(第一版)》,养老机构防控疫情的主要措施包括日常预防措施,以及有老人出现可疑症状时的应对措施。疾病流行期间,建议养老机构实施封闭式管理,原则上不接待外来人员走访慰问,老人不能离院外出,不再接受新入住老人,必须外出的老人回到养老机构后应密切观察。此外,养老机构还应建立老人和工作人员的健康档案,每日开展晨检和健康登记;建立探访人员登记制度,所有外来探访人员应佩戴医用外科口罩;倡导老人养成经常洗手的好习惯,确保环境清洁卫生。如有老人出现可疑症状时,及时为其安排单间进行自我隔离,由医护人员对其健康状况进行评估,视病情状况送至医疗机构就诊,并暂停探访活动。
Prevention and Control in Nursing Homes
The elderly are a vulnerable and high-risk group with a weak capacity for self-protection. Institutions for the rehabilitation, nursing, and care of the elderly should take protective measures.
In late January 2020, the Ministry of Civil Affairs issued a notice requesting all localities to make every effort to prevent and control the novel coronavirus in elderly care institutions to ensure the safety and health of senior citizens.
According to the Prevention and Control Protocol for Novel Coronavirus (1st Edition), major measures to be taken by the elderly care institutions included daily preventive measures and counter measures should elderly people displaying symptoms give cause for concern.
During the epidemic, elderly care institutions were recommended to perform closed management. Technically they should not receive visitors from outside, the elderly should not leave the institutions, and the institutions should not accept new arrivals. Any residents who had to go out should be put under close observation after returning to the nursing home.

Elderly care institutions should establish health records for staff and residents, and conduct daily morning check-ups and health registration. All visitors were to be registered and wear surgical masks; the elderly were to be encouraged to wash hands frequently and keep their rooms clean and tidy.

Should a resident display symptoms giving cause for concern, depending on the situation the institution should promptly arrange a single room for quarantine, ask medical staff to assess their health status, and suspend their visits, or send them to the appropriate medical institution for treatment.
幼儿园、学校防控
幼儿园、学校是幼儿、学生集体生活的场所,易感人群集中,易导致交叉感染。为科学精准指导各类学校做好新冠肺炎疫情防控工作,维护师生员工生命安全、维护校园正常生活教学秩序,2020年3月12日,国家教育部应对疫情工作领导小组办公室组织编写的《幼儿园新冠肺炎防控指南》《中小学校新冠肺炎防控指南》《高等学校新冠肺炎防控指南》出版上线,对幼儿园、学校做好应对疫情工作具有指导意义。
幼儿园、学校防控疫情的主要措施包括:返校前有过疫情高发地区(如武汉等地区)居住史或旅行史的学生,建议居家观察14天期满再返校;学生返校后应每日监测体温和健康状况,尽量减少不必要外出,避免接触其他人员;学生与其他师生发生近距离接触的环境中,要正确佩戴医用外科口罩或N95口罩,尽量缩小活动范围;学校密切监测学生的健康状态,每日两次测量体温,做好缺勤、早退、请假记录,如发现学生中出现可疑症状,应立刻向疫情管理人员报告,配合医疗卫生机构做好密切接触者管理和消毒等工作;学校应尽量避免组织大型集体活动,教室、宿舍、图书馆、活动中心、食堂、礼堂、教师办公室、洗手间等公共活动区域加强通风清洁,配备洗手液、手消毒剂等;校方对因疫情、因病误课的学生开展网络教学、补课,对于因病耽误考试的学生,应安排补考,不应记入档案。
Prevention and Control in Kindergartens and Schools
Kindergartens and schools are places where young children and students who are vulnerable to diseases and easily suffer cross-infection live together.
To provide guidance to schools on epidemic prevention and control, protect the health of children and teachers, and maintain normal teaching order, the leading group on virus prevention of the Ministry of Education on March 12 released a series of guides on COVID-19 prevention and control in kindergartens, primary and middle schools, and colleges and universities.
To ensure epidemic prevention and control, the students should do the following:

* Stay at home for a 14-day observation period before returning to school if they had traveled from or resided in any area hit hard by the epidemic (such as Wuhan);
* Monitor their body temperature and health every day after returning to school, reduce unnecessary outdoor activities and avoid contact with others;
* Properly wear surgical or N95 masks when in close contact with their teachers and schoolmates, and minimize the scope of activities.

Schools should do the following:

* Monitor the health of students, take their body temperature twice a day, and keep records of absence, early leave and leave;
* Report to epidemic management staff should any student display symptoms giving cause for concern, and cooperate with medical and health institutions in the management of close contacts and disinfection work;
* Avoid organizing large-scale collective activities;
* Ensure ventilation and cleaning in public areas such as classrooms, dormitories, libraries, activity centers, canteens, auditoriums, teacher offices and toilets, and equip these places with hand sanitizers and hand disinfectants;
* Provide online teaching and catch-up lessons for students who miss classes due to the epidemic or illness;
* Arrange replacement exams for students who miss exams due to illness.
老年人防控
老年人免疫功能弱,是传染病的易感人群和高危易发人群,本次新冠肺炎疫情的危重症人群中老年人居多。2020年1月28日,国家卫生健康委印发《关于做好老年人新冠肺炎疫情防控工作的通知》,要求将老年人的疫情防控作为当前的重要工作来抓,采取有效措施,切实降低老年人感染率,尽最大努力减少重症和死亡病例。全国老龄工作委员会办公室发布的《给老年朋友的一封信》倡议,老年人要科学防控,不要过度恐慌;尽量减少外出,做好个人防护;注重补充营养和食品卫生;合理适度锻炼身体;主动学习相关防护知识等。
根据国家卫生健康委在2020年1月29日发布的《新型冠状病毒防控指南(第一版)》,老年人群的主要防控措施包括:确保老人掌握预防新冠肺炎的个人防护措施、手卫生要求、卫生和健康习惯,避免共用个人物品,注意通风,落实消毒措施;倡导老人养成经常洗手的好习惯;老人出现可疑症状时,应自我隔离,避免与其他人员近距离接触,由医护人员对其健康状况进行评估,视病情状况送至医疗机构就诊,注意及时佩戴医用外科口罩,并避免乘坐公共交通工具;曾与可疑症状者有无有效防护的密切接触者,应立即登记,并进行医学观察;减少不必要的聚会、聚餐等群体性活动,不安排集中用餐等。此外,若出现可疑症状的老人被确诊为新冠肺炎,其密切接触者应接受14天医学观察。病人离开后(如住院、死亡等),应及时对住所进行终末消毒。
Prevention and Control for the Elderly
Elderly people with weak immune systems are a high-risk category, vulnerable to infectious diseases. They represent the majority of severe and critical cases among COVID-19 patients.
On January 28, the NHC issued a notice on epidemic prevention and control among the elderly, requiring effective measures to reduce infections, severe cases and deaths. The Office of the National Working Committee on Aging published a letter calling for senior citizens to take scientific precautions and not to panic; reduce outdoor activities and use personal protection; balance nutrition and ensure food hygiene; exercise moderately; and take heed of protective advice.
According to the Prevention and Control Protocol for Novel Coronavirus (1st Edition), the main prevention and control measures for the elderly included:

* Learn necessary methods of personal protection, keep hands clean, and maintain hygiene and health habits;
* Avoid sharing personal items, ensure good ventilation, and use disinfectant;
* Wash hand frequently;
* Adopt self-quarantine, avoid close contact with others in case of symptoms giving cause for concern, and ask medical staff to assess their health status and send them to a medical institution for treatment if required;
* Wear surgical masks and avoid taking public transportation when going to hospital;
* Anyone who has not taken effective protection when in close contact with someone with symptoms giving cause for concern should be registered immediately and put under medical observation;
* Reduce unnecessary gatherings, dinner parties and other group activities, and avoid collective dining.

If an elderly person is diagnosed with the novel coronavirus, their close contacts need to undergo 14 days of medical observation. Should the patient leave the establishment (in case of hospitalization or death), the residence must be disinfected immediately.
儿童防控
儿童是新冠肺炎的易感人群之一。2020年2月2日,国务院应对新冠肺炎疫情联防联控机制发出通知,要求做好儿童和孕产妇新冠肺炎疫情防控工作。
根据国家卫生健康委在2020年1月29日发布的《新型冠状病毒防控指南(第一版)》,儿童群体的主要防控措施包括:尽量避免外出,不到人员密集和空间密闭的场所,不走亲访友,不与有呼吸道感染症状的人接触,确需外出的要正确佩戴口罩,做好防护措施;要养成打喷嚏或咳嗽时用纸巾或袖肘遮住嘴巴、鼻子的习惯;如果有发烧、生病的情况,一定要配合家长及时去医院就医;家长要加强居室通风,做好室内消毒,创造清洁生活环境,外出回家后洗手更衣再接触儿童;家长要教会儿童正确的洗手方法,督促儿童勤洗手、不乱摸,适度运动、合理膳食、作息规律,帮助儿童养成良好的卫生习惯等。
Prevention and Control for Children
Children are one of the groups vulnerable to the novel coronavirus. On February 2, the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council issued a notice on ensuring effective protection of children and pregnant women.
According to the Prevention and Control Protocol for Novel Coronavirus (1st Edition), the main prevention and control measures for children included:

* Reduce outdoor activities as much as possible, avoid crowded or poorly ventilated spaces, and avoid visiting relatives and friends or having contact with people who have symptoms of respiratory tract infection;
* Employ effective protection such as wearing a facial mask while out of the home;
* Cover mouth and nose with tissue or elbow when sneezing or coughing;
* Go promptly to hospital with parents in case of a fever or illness;
* Parents should improve room ventilation, and disinfection the home to create a clean living environment;
* After returning from public areas, parents should wash hands and change clothes before having contact with children;
* Parents should teach children how to wash their hands properly, urge children to wash their hands frequently, avoid touching public objects, balance nutrition and exercise moderately, work and rest regularly, and should help children develop good health habits.
学生防控
学生的身体健康牵涉到千家万户,是疫情防控的关键和重中之重。2020年1月29日,国家教育部宣布各地在疫情防控期间做好延期开学的准备,中小学应在延迟开学期间“停课不停教、不停学”。
根据国家卫生健康委在2020年1月29日发布的《新型冠状病毒防控指南(第一版)》,学生群体的主要防控措施包括:寒假期间,有疫情高发地区(如武汉等地区)居住史或旅行史的学生,自离开疫情高发地区后,居家或在指定场所医学观察14天;各地学生均应尽量居家,减少走亲访友、聚会聚餐,减少到人员密集的公共场所活动;每日进行健康监测,并根据社区或学校要求向社区或学校指定负责人报告。寒假结束时,学生如无可疑症状,可正常返校;如有可疑症状,应报告学校或由监护人报告学校,及时就医,待痊愈后再返校;返校途中,乘坐公共交通工具时全程佩戴医用外科口罩或N95口罩,随时保持手卫生,做好旅途中健康监测,避免与可疑症状人员近距离接触;若旅途中出现可疑症状,应主动戴上医用外科口罩或N95口罩,尽量避免接触其他人员,并视病情及时就医;如需前往医疗机构就诊时,应主动告知旅行居住史,妥善保存旅行票据信息,配合相关密切接触者调查等。
Prevention and Control for Students
Student health involves thousands of families, a top priority in epidemic prevention and control. On January 29, the Ministry of Education proposed that all regions postpone the new school term during the epidemic prevention and control period, and primary and middle schools “not suspend teaching and learning” during the period.
According to the Prevention and Control Protocol for Novel Coronavirus (1st Edition), students should do the following:

* Stay at home or in a designated place for 14-day medical observation after their departure if they have traveled from or resided in an area hit hard by the epidemic (such as Wuhan) during the winter vacation;
* Stay at home, reduce visits to relatives and friends, parties and collective dining, and reduce visits to crowded public areas;
* Conduct daily health monitoring and report to the person designated by the community or school.
* Return to school at the end of winter vacation if there are no symptoms giving cause for concern;
* Report to the school if there are any such symptoms, seek timely medical advice, and return to school after recovery;
* Wear surgical or N95 masks on public transportation on the way back to school, follow hand hygiene, do health monitoring, and avoid close contact with people with symptoms giving cause for concern;
* If you have any symptoms, wear a surgical or N95 mask during your journey, avoid contact with others, and seek timely medical advice depending on the situation;
* Inform the doctor about travel and residence history, conserve travel tickets and information, and cooperate with any investigation about close contacts.
有疾病流行地区居住旅行史人员防控
根据国家卫生健康委在2020年1月29日发布的《新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎防控公众预防指南汇编》,在两周内有武汉等疾病流行地区居住、旅行史的人员应做好登记、隔离和酌情就医等防控措施,具体包括:尽快到所在村支部或社区登记,减少外出活动,尤其是避免到人员密集的公共场所活动;从离开疾病流行地区时开始,连续14天进行自我健康状况监测,每天两次;条件允许时,尽量单独居住或居住在通风良好的单人房间,并尽量减少与家人的密切接触;若出现可疑症状(包括发热、咳嗽、咽痛、胸闷、呼吸困难、轻度纳差、乏力、精神稍差、恶心呕吐、腹泻、头痛、心慌、结膜炎、轻度四肢或腰背部肌肉酸痛等),应根据病情及时就诊;就医途中,应佩戴医用外科口罩或N95口罩;避免乘坐公共交通工具前往医院,路上打开车窗,注意时刻佩戴口罩、随时保持手卫生,尽可能远离其他人(至少1米),若路途中污染了交通工具,建议使用含氯消毒剂或过氧乙酸消毒剂,对所有被呼吸道分泌物或体液污染的表面进行消毒。
Prevention and Control for People Who Have Traveled or Resided in an Epidemic Area
According to the Guidebook on Public Prevention of Novel Coronavirus-infected Pneumonia, released by the NHC on January 29, people who have lived or traveled in epidemic areas like Wuhan in the previous two weeks should take prevention and control measures, including registration, quarantine, and seeking medical attention as appropriate.
Specifically, they should do the following:

* Register at local community or village administration as soon as possible, and avoid outdoor activities, especially visits to crowded public places;
* Monitor their health twice a day for 14 consecutive days starting from the day of leaving the epidemic area;
* Stay alone or in a well-ventilated single room, if possible, and minimize close contact with family members;
* Seek medical advice immediately if they have any symptom related to COVID-19 (such as fever, cough, sore throat, chest distress, breathing difficulties, mildly poor appetite, fatigue, feebleness, nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, headache, palpitation, conjunctivitis, mild myalgia in limbs or the lumbodorsal area);
* On the way to hospital, wear a surgical or N95 mask, and avoid taking public transportation; keep the car windows open for good ventilation; keep the mask on and hands clear at all times; and stay at least one meter from other people;
* Disinfectants containing chlorine or peracetic acid are recommended to sterilize all surfaces of a vehicle if it is contaminated by the respiratory secretions or body fluids of someone at risk of carrying the virus.
居家隔离人员防控
居家隔离是科学防控的必要手段,也是阻止病毒传播蔓延的重要方法之一。为指导居家隔离医学观察的人员做好个人防护,预防和控制感染,国家卫生健康委在2020年2月5日印发的《新冠肺炎防控中居家隔离医学观察感染防控指引(试行)》中,对居家隔离医学观察随访者、居家隔离医学观察人员及其家庭成员或室友等相关人员的感染防控措施作出详细介绍。
根据该防控指引,居家隔离医学观察人员感染防控应注意:可选择家庭中通风较好的房间隔离,多开窗通风,保持房门随时关闭,在打开与其他家庭成员或室友相通的房门时先开窗通风;不随意离开隔离房间,必须离开隔离房间时,先戴好外科口罩,洗手或手消毒后再出门;尽可能减少与其他家庭成员或室友接触,保持1米以上距离并尽量处于下风向;避免使用中央空调;保持充足休息和充足营养,最好在隔离房间内进食、饮水,分时段共用卫生间,用后通风并用酒精等消毒剂对身体接触的物体表面清洁消毒;讲究咳嗽礼仪,咳嗽时用纸巾遮盖口鼻,不随地吐痰,纸巾及口罩用后丢入专门的带盖垃圾桶内;用过的物品及时清洁消毒;按居家隔离医学观察通知,每日上下午测量体温,自觉发热时随时测量并记录,出现发热、咳嗽、气促等急性呼吸道症状时,及时联系隔离点观察人员。
此外,居家隔离医学观察人员的家庭成员、室友、物业保洁人员、保安人员等需接触居家隔离观察对象时,也应注意防控,正确穿戴和摘脱防护用品。
Prevention and Control for People Under Home Quarantine
Home quarantine is a scientific and an important means to prevent the virus from spreading. The Guidelines on Medical Observation at Home for COVID-19 Prevention and Control (Trial), released by the NHC on February 5, detailed the measures for people under home quarantine and their family members/roommates, and for staff conducting follow-up visits to them.
According to its suggestions, people under home quarantine and medical observation should do the following:

* Stay in a well-ventilated room, and keep the windows open for ventilation but the door closed;
* Open the window of their room for ventilation before opening the door that connects to where family members or roommates live;
* Avoid leaving the room, and wear a surgical mask, wash or sanitize hands before going out, if they must;
* Minimize contacts with family members or roommates, keep a distance of at least one meter from them, and try to remain downwind of them;
* Do not use the central air-conditioning;
* Get adequate rest and nutrition, and eat and drink in their own room;
* Timeshare bathrooms, and after usage, keep the bathroom ventilated, and use alcohol and other disinfectants to sterilize all the surfaces of objects that are subject to physical contact;
* Practice the Cough Etiquette: covering mouth and nose with a tissue when coughing; no spitting; and putting all used tissues and masks into special waste receptacles with covers;
* Clean and disinfect immediately all objects they have used;
* Follow the notice for medical observation at home and measure body temperature every morning and afternoon or anytime they think they might have a fever;
* Contact staff at the quarantine center if they develop acute respiratory symptoms such as fever, cough, and panting.

If family members, roommates, property management company, cleaning and security staff, and other people need to come into contact with the person under medical observation at home, it is recommended to correctly put on, wear and remove a protective suit.
居家发热患者防控
冬春季节,呼吸道传染病高发,普通感冒、流感和新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎均可导致发热,但症状各有不同。如普通感冒通常表现为打喷嚏、流鼻涕、咽喉不适等明显的上呼吸道症状,而全身症状较轻,不发热或仅有短暂发热。流感多为高热,全身症状较重,伴有畏寒、头痛、全身酸痛、鼻塞、流涕、干咳、胸痛、恶心、食欲不振等表现。新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎以发热、乏力、干咳为主要表现,少数患者伴有鼻塞、流涕、腹泻等症状。
根据国家卫生健康委在2020年1月29日发布的《新型冠状病毒防控指南(第一版)》,如果出现发热、咳嗽等症状,以下任一情况,建议采取居家隔离的方式进行观察,一是症状轻微,体温低于38℃,无明显气短、气促、胸闷、呼吸困难,呼吸、血压、心率等生命体征平稳;二是无严重呼吸系统、心血管系统等基础疾病及严重肥胖者。
《指南》建议,居家发热患者应注意休息,营养均衡,饮食宜清淡;多饮温水,少饮冰凉饮料,保证脾胃功能正常;避免盲目或不恰当使用抗菌药物;严格正确佩戴口罩,与家人分餐,与家人保持距离1.5米以上;怕冷、发热、肌肉酸痛、咳嗽者,可选用具有解热散寒、清热解毒、宣肺止咳类中成药;乏力倦怠,恶心、食欲下降、腹泻者,可选用具有化湿解表类中成药;发热伴有咽痛明显者,可选用具有清热解毒利咽功能类中成药;发热伴有大便不畅者,可加用具有通腑泻热类制剂。此外,如果居家发热患者体温升高至38.5℃以上,可采取温湿毛巾或冰贴等物理降温措施,建议口服解热镇痛类、清热解毒类中成药。如果患者体温持续2小时以上不退,出现胸闷、气短、心率增快、腹泻或呕吐加重,建议到定点医院、发热门诊就诊。如果呼吸频率出现呼吸频率≥30次/分,伴呼吸困难及口唇发绀等表现,应拨打120急救电话,由急救医护人员转运到定点医院、发热门诊救治。
Prevention and Control for Fever Patients at Home
Winter and spring see high incidences of respiratory infections. Common colds, influenza and COVID-19 can all lead to fever, but their other symptoms differ. The symptoms of a common cold are obvious in the upper respiratory tract, such as sneezing, runny nose, and sore throat, and also there may be some mild general symptoms with transient fever or no fever. People with influenza may have severe general symptoms, often including high fevers, and other signs such as feeling chills, headaches, body aches, runny or stuffy nose, dry cough, chest pain, nausea, and lack of appetite. The main symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, fatigue, and dry cough. A few patients also have runny or stuffy noses, diarrhea and other signs.
According to the Prevention and Control Protocol for Novel Coronavirus (1st Edition), home quarantine is recommended for those with symptoms of fever and cough if any of the following conditions is met: (1) body temperature below 38℃, mild symptoms without obvious shortness of breath, tachypnea, chest distress, or breathing difficulties, and steady vital signs including breath, blood pressure and heart rate; (2) no severe underlying disorder in the respiratory or cardiovascular system, and no severe obesity.
As advised in the Protocol, fever patients at home should get good rest, keep a light and well-balanced diet, and take warm water instead of cold drinks to ensure normal functions of the spleen and stomach. Unprescribed or improper use of antibiotics should be avoided. Separate meals are encouraged at home. They should wear a mask correctly, and maintain at least 1.5-meter distance from other family members
For symptoms of feeling chills, fever, myalgia and cough, Chinese patent medicines (CPMs) for releasing heat, dissipating cold, detoxifying, and diffusing the lung to suppress cough can be taken; for fatigue, nausea, loss of appetite, and diarrhea, CPMs for resolving dampness and releasing the exterior; for fever and obvious sore throat, CPMs for releasing heat, detoxifying, and soothing the throat; and for fever and poor bowel movement, Chinese medicine preparations for relaxing the bowels and purging heat can be added.
If the temperature of a fever patient at home rises above 38.5℃, such measures as warm and wet towels and ice packs could be used for physical cooling, and oral administration of CPMs for releasing heat, easing pain, and detoxifying is recommended.
If the high temperature remains for more than 2 hours and symptoms such as chest distress, shortness of breath, increased heart rate, diarrhea or vomiting develop, it is advised to visit a designated hospital or fever clinic.
If the respiratory frequency is higher than 30/minute, and there are symptoms of breathing difficulties and blue lips, call 120 for first aid to have the patient moved to a designated hospital or fever clinic by medical personnel.
疑似病例防控
国家卫生健康委在2020年1月22日发布的《新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎防控方案(第二版)》中,明确提出了新冠肺炎病例监测方案、流行病学调查方案、可疑暴露者和密切接触者管理方案以及实验室检测技术指南,提出加强组织领导、病例发现与报告、流行病学调查等9项防控措施,指导各级各类医疗机构、各级疾控机构开展病例监测、发现和报告工作。根据该防控方案,疑似病例的定义为:有三项临床表现,即发热,具有肺炎影像学特征,发病早期白细胞总数正常或降低,或淋巴细胞计数减少;同时,具有发病前14天内有武汉旅行史或居住史,或发病前14天内曾接触过来自武汉的发热伴有呼吸道症状的患者,或有聚集性发病或与确诊病例有流行病学关联等任何一项流行病学史的患者。
该防控方案指出,医疗机构发现符合疑似病例、确诊病例定义的患者时,应按要求开展流行病学调查、进行临床标本采集与相关病原检测;加强隔离、消毒和防护工作,对疑似病例进行单间隔离治疗。
Prevention and Control for Suspected Cases
In the Protocol for Novel Coronavirus-infected Pneumonia Prevention and Control (2nd Edition), released on January 22, the NHC laid out guidelines for monitoring patients, epidemiological investigations, management of suspect exposures and close contacts, and technical guidelines for laboratory testing. Nine prevention and control measures, including strengthening organization and leadership, case detection and reporting, and epidemiological investigation, were provided to guide healthcare facilities and disease control centers at all levels on monitoring, detecting and reporting infections.
According to the Protocol, the definition of suspected cases considers both clinical and epidemiological factors. There are three clinical manifestations: fever; radiographic imaging consistent with pneumonia; and normal or decreased white blood cell count, or decreased lymphocyte count in the early stages of the disease. The epidemiological history includes: history of travel to or residence in Wuhan within 14 days prior to the onset of the disease; contact with a patient from Wuhan with fever and respiratory symptoms within 14 days prior to the onset of the disease; clustered cases; or an epidemiological relation with a confirmed case. A suspected case is defined as having all the three clinical manifestations plus any of the epidemiological history criteria.
It is stated in the Protocol that if patients who meet the definitions of suspected or confirmed cases are identified, healthcare facilities should conduct epidemiological investigations and lab testing, collect specimens, and strengthen measures for quarantine, disinfection, prevention and control. Suspected cases should be quarantined and treated in single rooms.
医疗机构就诊防护
国家卫生健康委在2020年1月30日印发的《新冠病毒感染不同风险人群防护指南》中,对需要到医疗机构就诊的出行人员提出防护建议:佩戴医用外科口罩,并保持手清洁;尽量避免乘坐地铁、公交车等交通工具,避免前往人群密集的场所;就诊时应主动告知医务人员相关疾病流行地区的旅行居住史,以及与他人接触情况,配合医疗卫生机构开展相关调查。
同时,医疗机构应做好就诊患者的管理,合理配置医务人员,降低医疗机构内感染的风险;发现疑似或确诊感染新冠病毒的患者时,依法采取隔离或控制传播措施,并按照规定对患者的陪同人员和其他密切接触人员采取医学观察及其他必要的预防措施;不具备新冠肺炎救治能力的医疗机构,应及时将患者转诊到定点救治医院。
Prevention and Control for Visits to Medical Institutions
In the Guide on Protecting People Against Different Risks of Novel Coronavirus Infection, released on January 30, the NHC provided the following advice to individuals who need to visit a medical institution:

* Wear a surgical mask and keep hands clean;
* Avoid taking subway, bus or other public transportation, and avoid going to crowded places;
* Inform medical staff of any history of travel to or residence in any region affected by the epidemic, and any contacts with others, and cooperate with the medical institution’s investigations.

Medical institutions should strengthen patient management, allocate medical staff properly, and reduce the risks of hospital-acquired infection. When a suspected or confirmed case is identified, quarantine or containment should be taken in accordance with law, and medical observation and other necessary precautions should be provided to the patient escorts and other close contacts. Institutions not authorized to treat COVID-19 should transfer any patients to a designated hospital in a timely manner.
Jointly presented by 
Academy of Contemporary China and World Studies China Report Press 

总策划:陈实、于运全 
Producer: CHEN Shi, YU Yunquan 
出版人:杨平、尹杰 
Publisher: YANG Ping, YIN Jie 
主编:范大祺、董彦 
Editor-in-chief: FAN Daqi, DONG Yan 
责编:申阳、杨怡、陈珂 
Editor: SHEN Yang, YANG Yi, CHEN Ke 
设计总监:陈强 
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